ACI 547R 79 Refractory Concrete

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Transcript of ACI 547R 79 Refractory Concrete

  • ACI 547R-79

    Refractory Concrete : Abstract of State-of-the-Art Report

    Reported b y A C I Committee 5 4 7







    Keywords: abrasion; accelerating agents;admixtures; aggregates ; aluminate cementand concretes; anchorage (structural); ce-ment-aggregate reactions; chemical analy-sis; construction; corrosion: curing; drying;

    (Revised 1983)(Reapproved 1997)


    5.5 - Pneumatic gun casting5.8 - Finishing

    Chapter 6 -Curing, drying,firing, p. 547R-96.1 - Introduction6.2 - Bond mechanisms6.3 - Curing6.4 - Drying

    547R-1511.1 - Introduction

    Chapter 12 - New devel-opments and future use of re-fractory concrete, p. 547R-1512.1 - Introduction12.2 - New developments

    - Research requirements

    on in writing is obtained from the copyrightietors.ssion of this committee report may be sub-d in accordance with general requirements ACI Publication Policy to ACI Headquar-

    CopyrighProvidedNo reprofailure mechanisms; formwork (construc-tion); hydration; insulating concretes; kilns;l i g h t w e i g h t c o n c r e e t e s ; mechanical proper-ties; m i x p r o p o r t i o n i n g ; packaged concrete;physical properties ; placing; pumped con-crete; quality control; refractories; refrac-tory concretes; reinforcing materials: re-

    6.5 - Firing

    Copyright 0 1979, American Concrete InstituteAll rights reserved including rights of reproduc-tion and use in any form or by any means, in-cluding the making of copies by any photo pro-cess, or by any electronic or mechanical device,


    missiproprDiscumitteof theRefractory concretes are cur-rently used in a wide varietyindustrial applications where py-reprocessing and/or thermal con-tainment is required. The serdemands of these applicationbecoming increasingly severethis, combined with the consdemand for refractories with hanced service life and moreficient means of installation, resulted in an ever expandingfractory concrete technology.Committee 547 has preparedstate-of-the-art report in ordemeet the need for a better ustanding of this relatively technology.

    The report presents baground information and pspective on the history and rent status of the technoloComposition and proportioninmethods are discussed togwith a detailed review of the stituent ingredients. Emphasisplaced on proper proceduresthe installation, curing, dryand firing. The physical and eneering properties of both noweight and light weight refracconcretes are reported, asstate-of-the-art construction tails and repair/maintenance tniques. Also included is an in-depth review of a wide varieapplications together with thcommittees assessment of futurneeds and developments.

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    t American Concrete Institute by IHS under license with ACI duction or networking permitted without license from IHS of

    vice are andtanten- ef-has re-ACI thisr to 547R-5der-ew




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    ty of

    This abstract first appeared in Concretion, V. 1, No. 5, May 1979, pp. separate publication in 81/4 x 11 in., ppages. Contents listed on this pacovered in this abstract.

    Contents of summaryChapter 1 -Introduction, p.547R-21.1 - Objective of report1.2 - Scope of report1.3 - Nomenclature1.6 - Non-hydraulic setting refrac-


    Chapter 2 -Criteria for re-fractory concrete selection, p.

    2.1 - Introduction2.2 - Castables and field mixes2.5 - Load bearing considerations2.7 - Corrosion influences2.10 - Abrasion and erosion resistanc

    Chapter 3 -Constituent in-gredients, p. 547R-63.2 - Binders3.3 - Aggregates3.4 -Effects of extraneous materials

    Chapter 4 -Composition andproportioning, p. 547R-74.1 - Introduction4.3 - Field mixes4.4 - Water content

    Chapter 5 -Installation, p.547R-85.1 - Introduction5.2 - Casting5.3 - Shotcreting5.4 - Pumping and extrudinglling;hermalc.

    printed or written or oral, or recording for soundor visual reproduction or for use in any knedge or retrieval system or device, unles

    Licensee=Aramco HQ/9980755100 Not for Resale, 07/26/2007 04:42:01 Me International: Design & Construc-62-77. The full report is available as aaper cover format, consisting of 224ge represent only tbe sections of the report



    Chapter 7 -Properties ofnormal weight refractoryconcretes, p. 547R-10

    7.27.1 - Introduction

    7.4- Maximum service temperature- Shrinkage and expansion

    7.5 - Strength7.6 - Thermal conductivity7.10 - Specific heat

    Chapter 8 -Properties oflightweight refractory con-cretes, p. 547R-118.1 - Introduction8.4 - Shrinkage and expansion8.5 - Strength8.6 - Thermal conductivity8.10 - Specific heat

    Chapter 9 -Construction de-tails, p. 547R-129.1 - Introduction9.2 - Support structure9.3 - Forms

    - Anchors9.5 - Reinforcement and metal embed-

    ment9.6 - Joints

    Chapter 10 -Repair, p. 547R-1310.1 - Introduction10.2 - Failure mechanisms10.3 - Surface preparation10.4 - Anchoring and bonding10.5 - Repair materials10.6 - Repair techniques

    Chapter 11 -Applications, p.owl-s per-

    ters, P.O. Box 19150. Detroit, Michigan 48219.Closing date for submission of discussion is No-vember 1, 1979.






    r ca ee


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    eto con-re below


    atid and ba-per-

    gry body contains


    onditions. glasses

    erialhich may

    t to the interest

    ncal prop-

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    gate, andfractoryl for ap-ontrol isy satisfac-

    om-e dis-ated an-ult repaire invento-flexibilityirements

    -hich arefor mon-and ford exten-

    clay, alu-r graphitet setting

    icgenerallyinder.actoriesre, higher

    Copyright AProvided byNo reproducChapter 1 -Introduction1.1 Objective of reportThe objective of this report is to provide a sinformation on the many facets of refractcrete technology. The report is intended as and objective source of information to aid tneer or consumer in categorizing and evmonolithic refractory concrete technology many materials and processes available tonot intended to be a specification or standshould not be quoted or used for that purp

    1.2 Scope of reportRefractory concrete is concrete suitable fotemperatures up to about 3400 F (1870 C). Itof a graded refractory aggregate bound by cementing medium. This report is concernrefractory concrete in which the binding aghydraulic cement, and does not consider which use waterglass (sodium silicate), phacid, or phosphates as a principal cementinIt covers all facets of refractory concrete inand use, including the properties of indivigredients and concretes, placing techniquesof curing and firing, repair procedures, condetails, and current and future applications

    1.3 NomenclatureThe following definitions are used in this reportACID REFRACTORIES - Refractories containinsubstantial amount of silica that may reacically with basic refractories, basic slags, ofluxes at high temperatures.APPARENT POROSITY (ASTM C20) - The rela-tionship of the volume of the open pores in tory specimen to its exterior volume, exprespercentage.BASIC REFRACTORIES - Refractories whose mjor constituent is lime, magnesia, or both, anmay react chemically with acid refractorieslags, or acid fluxes at high temperature(Com-mercial use of this term also includes refmade of chrome ore or combinations of chrand dead burned magnesite).CALCIUM ALUMINATE CEMENT - The producobtained by pulverizing clinker which consistdraulic calcium aluminates formed by fusingr sin-tering a suitably proportioned mixture of aand calcareous materials.CASTABLE REFRACTORY - A proprietary pacaged dry mixture of hydraulic cement and selected and proportioned refractory agwhich, when mixed with water, will producetory concrete or mortar.CERAMIC BOND - The high strength bond wis developed between materials, such as aluminate cement and refractory aggregates, as a sult of thermochemical reactions which occthe materials are subjected to elevated temEXPLOSIVE SPALLING - A sudden spallinwhich occurs as the result of a build-up opressure caused by too rapid heating on firGROG - Burned refractory material, usually calcined clay or crushed brick bats.

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    steam firing.

    HEAT RESISTANT CONCRETE - Any concretwhich will not disintegrate when exposed stant or cyclical heating at any temperatuwhich a ceramic bond is formed.HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT - See calcium alumnate cement.NEUTRAL REFRACTORIES - Refractories thare resistant to chemical attack by both acsic slags, refractories, or fluxes at high tematures.REFRACTORY AGGREGATE - Materials havinrefractory properties which form a refractowhen bound into a conglomerate mass by aREFRACTORY CONCRETE - Concrete which suitable for use at high temperatures andhydraulic cement as the binding agent.SOFTENING TEMPERATURE - The temperatuat which a refractory material begins to permanent deformation under specified cThis term is more appropriately applied tothan to refractory concretes.THERMAL SHOCK - The exposure of a mator body to a rapid change in temperature whave a deleterious effect.

    1.6 Non-hydraulic setting reThe following discussion, while not pertinenmain theme of the report, will be of someand use to the reader.1.6.1 Refractory brick - High quality brick, knowas firebrick, with unique chemical and physierties is obtained by blending different types of clayand other ingredients and by varying bmethod of processing and the burning temIn addition to the many varieties of fireclay brick,high alumina, insulating, silica, fused aggrebasic firebrick have been developed. Rebrick remains a major construction materiaplications in which heat containment and cnecessary and in many instances, is the onltory solution to a specific problem.

    Brick has a number of disadvantages when cpared to monolithic refractories. Thesadvantages include multiple joints, complicchoring, higher placement costs, more difficprocedures, the need to maintain expensivries of special or scarce items, a certain inin structural design, and higher fuel requduring manufacture.1 . 6 . 2 Plastics and ramming mixes - Plastic refractories and ramming mixes are refractories wtamped or rammed in place and are used olithic construction, for repair purposes, molding special shapes. These materials finsive use in industry. They usually employ a mina, magnesite, chrome, silicon carbide, obase, and are blended with a binder. Heamixes are likely to contain fireclay or phosphoracid as a binder. Air or cold-setting mixes contain fireclay and sodium silicate as the bCompared to ramming mixes, plastic refrhave higher moisture contents and therefoplasticity.see=Aramco HQ/9980755100 r Resale, 07/26/2007 04:42:01 MDT



    2350 2600 2600

    B C c



    14.0-15.5 11-14 3.5-11 14-16

    120-124 126-130 137-142 118-120

    C C C-T-S-EC-T-S-E

    126 133120 125120 122120 123

    131 133 144 146 124 131126 129 122 124124 129 138 140 121 122124 128 140 141 120 121

    133 138 121 123

    -0.1 to -0.5-0.2 to -0.5-0.1 to -0.7-0.1 to -0.9

    -0.1 t o -0.5 0. 0 t o -0.3 -0.2 t o -0.4-0. 3 t o -0.6 - -0. 4 t o -0.5-0.4 t o -0.6 0. 0 t o -0.3 -0. 4 t o -0.5-0. 3 t o -0.5 -0. 1 t o -0.5 -0. 5 t o -0.7

    -0. 1 t o +1.7 -0. 1 to +0.5

    975 - 1030 / 810 - 1015 1020 - 1250535 -- 710 395 - 440400 -- 560 300 415405 -- 465 310 395

    520 - 910i -

    -385370 570

    - 605370 - 2390

    820 - 1170300 - 590300 - 560300 - 460

    2410 - 3800470 - 2210530 - 2090450 - 2070

    3450 - 3870 2150 - - 3580 3075 - 54701800 229 --- 29955- 37951775 2325 450 - -- 1590 2425 - 28451480 2225 050 - -- 1340 1500 - 2105

    470 -- 2280 3735 - 6970-

    4.48 7.25 4.604.85 7.40 5.005.30 7.65 5.405.73 7.85 5.80








    34.64 4.18 46.08TABLE 2.1a - Characteristics of normal weight refractory concretes




    3400 3000 2800 -G E -

    2800 B


    8-11 8-12 10-12 (3 ) 10-12.5 10-13 15-21


    Recommended ServiceTemperature max., Deg. F

    ASTM Class (C-401)

    Water Required for Mixinq,Percent by Weight

    Material Required (1)lbs. per cu. ft., lbs. per bagMethod of Application _ (2)

    1 6 0 - 1 6 5 140-145 129-133 129-133

    C-T-S C_T_S_E C-T S

    165 178 139 147 131 138 130 136159 169 138 146 128 134 127 133161 174 138 146 128 132 126 133161 174 137 146 130 135 127 133165 176 139 150 123 128 127 130160 169 138 146 123 127 128 135165 167 136 1490.0 to -0.5 -0.1 to -0.6 -0.l to -0.4 -0.2 to -0.6

    -0.1 to -0.5 -0.1 to -0.6 -0.2 to -0.3 -0.2 to -0.5-0.1 to -0.5 -0.2 to -0.6 -0.1 to -0.5 -0.1 to -0.5-0.1 to -0.3 -0.2 to -0.7 -0.3 to -0.7 -0.1 to -0.9-0.4 to -1.3 -0.5 to -1.1 -0.8 to +1.3 -0.5-0.7 to -1.4 -0.2 to +0.3 -0.5 to +1.0 -0.8

    to +0.2to +0.8

    -0.6 to -1.1 +0.1 to +0.7

    125-130 125-131 108-114

    C-E C-T-E C-T-S

    135 143129 134129 134127 135

    0. 2 t o -0.70 2 t o -0.60. 2 t o -0.60. 1 t o -0.6

    134 136 112 121132 144 108 117130 133 108133130 133 108


    124 132 111 114128 138

    -0. 3 t o -0.4 -0. 1 t o -0.5-0. 3 t o -0.4 -0. 11 t o -0.6-0. 2 t o -0.4 -0. 2 t o -0.5-0. 2 t o -0.5 -0. 4 t o -0.8+1.7 to +2.2 -1.2 to +0.3+1.3 to +2.4

    Bulk Density, 220 FHeated to I 1000 Ftemperature of: 1500 Fthen cooled 2000 Fpcf 2550 F

    2732 F3000 F

    Total Linear Change % Heated 220 Fto temp. of: then cooled 1000 F(Note: Linear change 1500 Ffigures are "TOTAL" 2000 Fin all cases and include 2550 Fpercent of drying 2732 Fshrinkage occurring 3000 Fin conversion fromwet "as cast"to "as dried" state)

    445 - 745 310 - 520175 - 310 200 - 270145 - 295 150 - 200145 - 270 130 - 240

    1245 - 2605 820 - 17802095



    4280 - 3145 990 - 1570645 - 1400 685 - 1030540 - 1260 630


    - 840560 - 915 640 - 850

    3021 - 3765 - 5490

    260 - 2000945 - 1240020 - 1865

    - 1385

    1600 - 2590 450 - 840 360 - 8 0 0 400 - 8401820 - 2320 350 - 570 370 - 650 320 - 6801450 - 2120 290 - 580 230 - 680 530 - 840930 - 1400 340 - 590 390 - 780 500 - 970

    1280 - 2615 820 - 2050 1000 - 2450 1300 - 30301290 - 2707 1260 - 2400 1110 - 2260 2290 - 3740750 - 1280 1685 - 4620

    5180 - 10230 1030 - 2160 1420 - 3780 1190 - 26208170 - 9160 1070 - 2250 1490 - 2950 1400 - 30007280 - 9395 950 - 2250 1110 - 2770 1690 - 33403036 - 10000 980 - 2050 1330 - 2920 1 1 6 0 - 31056180 - 11000 3280 - 4640 3200 - 7930 4250 -113904330 - 10115 4280 - 5620 5280 -12100 7140 -131753320 - 5325 5870 -10000

    9.87 6.47 5.35 4.609.46 6.15 5.35 5.009.36 5.80 5.40 5.409.57 5.72 5.65 5.80

    0.03 29.73 47.58 47.31

    93.65 65.16 48.31 46.73

    0.27 1.15 1.47 1.37

    5.52 2.48 1.47 3.25

    0.11 0.39 0.82 0.84

    0.30 0.66 0.15 0.47 -

    510 - 7910810 - 6480410 - 7110620 - 5375






    Cold Crushing Strength, 220 Fpsi 1000 FHeated to 1500 Ftemperature of: 2000 Fthen cooled 2550 F

    2732 F3000 F

    Thermal Conductivity 500 FBtu/in/hr-sq.ft.-Deq F 1000 Fat Mean 1500 FTemperature of: 2000 F

    Chemical Analysis percentS102A1203, T10 2Fe203, Fe0

    Ca0, Mg0

    46.70 40.03

    3.05 4.22

    6.09 9.03

    0.69 1.22

    Trace 1.14Alkalies

    Ignition Loss

    All measurements except thermaltaken at room temperature.


    SI conversion factorsD e g F = 1 . 8 C + 3 21 pcf = 16. 02 kg/m 31 l b = 0 . 4 5 3 6 k g1 p s i = 0 . 0 0 6 8 9 5 MPa1 B t u - i n . / h r - s q f t - d e g F

    Copyright American Concrete Institute

    Provided by IHS under license with ACI Licensee=Aram

    co HQ/9980755100 N

    ot for Resale, 07/26/2007 04:42:01 MDT

    No reproduction or networking perm

    itted without license from IHS



    TABLE 2.1b- Characteristics of lightweight insulating refractory concretes


    Copyright AProvided bNo reproduPRODUCTDESCRIPTION

    Recommended ServiceTemp. max., Deg. F

    ASTM Clas s (C 401)Water Required for Mixing,Percent by Weight

    Materials Required,lbs. per cu. ft. - -Method of Application*Bulk Density,lbs. per cu. ft., 220 FHeated to 1500 FTemp. of: 2000 Fthen cooled 2250 F

    2550 F2910 F

    Total Linear Change,Percent, 220 FHeated to 1500 FTemp. of: 2000 Fthen cooled 2250 F

    2550 F2910 F

    Modulus of Rupture,psi 220 FHeated to 1500 FTemp. of: 2000 Fthen cooled 2250 F

    2550 F2910 F

    Cold Crushing Strength,psi 220 FHeated to 1500 FTemp. of: 2000 Fthen cooled 2250 F

    2550 F2910 F

    Chemical Analysis, percent

    Si0 2A1203, Ti0 2Fe203, Fe0

    CaO, MgOAlkaliesIgnition Loss


    Thermal Conductivity (k),Btu/Hr./Sq. Ft./F./In,At MeanTemp. of: 500 F

    1000 F1500 F2000 F





    2500 2250-Q P&O

    38-47 40-47

    80-85 48-50

    WEIGHT1800 F










    C - T - S - E C-T-S-E

    86-90 51-5380-83 47-4880-84 48-4980-82 47-49



    -0.2 to -0.3-0.4 to -0.7-0.6 to -0.8-0.4 to -0.6-0.6 t o +0.8-0.2 t o +0.2

    -0. 2 t o -0.6 -0. 3 t o -0.4-0.4 t o -0.8 -0. 3 t o -0.9-0. 3 t o -0.8 -0. 3 t o -1.1-0. 2 t o -1.4 -0. 4 t o -1.4

    -0.1 to -0.4-1.7 to -2.0-0.8 to -1.3



    190-350 100-150140-230 70-90120-250 75-115155-315 160-170




    560-1040 290-450830-710 160-290460-800 130-220500-810 270-330


    - I

    36.52 40.08 37.38 43.17

    54.63 38.13 34.79 17.68

    1.38 5.31 6.63 3.114.56 13.53 17.68 31.34

    1.11 1.66 1.88 2.05

    1.90 1.20 1.45 2.40

    2.88 2.58 1.663.19 2.86 1.983.50 3.14 2.313.82 3.42 2.63

    1.40 0.871.71 1.152.01 1.43

    - -






    _ C-T-E



    *C-Casting; T-Troweling; S-Shotcretinq; E-Extruding. All measurements except thermal conductivity taken

    **2000 F (For back-up material)at room temperature.

    SI conversion factorsDegF = 1.8 C + 321 pcf = 16.02 kg/m'1 lb = 0.4536 kg1 psi = 0.006895 MPa1 Btu-in./hr-sq ft - deg F

    --`,,,,````,``,``,`,,,``,`,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---merican Concrete Institute y IHS under license with ACI Licensee=Aramco HQ/9980755100

    Not for Resale, 07/26/2007 04:42:01 MDTction or networking permitted without license from IHS


    f lg

    dyf t


    o an


    duid f

    d mixes, blended shippingth watere. Fieldwhich areor to the

    rete con-ough thet face totory willhas a ce-a weakerlic bond,

    of its hy-this typeself-sup-

    oarse ag-good loadefractoryhe inter-)]echanical

    concretest be sub-rosion orstrengthecline asete de-








    corrosive effect onstructure.


    y refrac-


    ance than

    of the re- productsg the hoty.ncrete isow-irons type of

    ng away, leaving fall away.ture, andare neces-ce in re-

    CopyProvNo rrials cured above 600 F (315 C), plastics generallhave lower cold and hot strengths than reconcretes. In addition, plastics tend to havetively low strength zone on the cool side of ing.

    Ramming mixes usually have higher densless shrinkage than plastic refractories. Witlow water content, they must be forced intand require strong well-braced forms. Somedryer medium grind ramming mixes are suitgunning, and are used for patching and maimaterials.1 . 6 . 4 Gunning mixes other than refractorycretes1 2 , 1 3 - As used in this section, the term ning mixes does not refer to refractory conand should not be confused with gunned rematerials which produce refractory concrete.ning mixes are mixtures of non-hydraulic setgredients which are installed hot or cold, usuthe shotcrete method.

    Gunning mixes generally have low rebounare predominately used for patching or resbrick or other refractories, have a strong bond, and exhibit excellent adhesion or bonexisting refractory lining. They find extensivebasic oxygen, electric arc and open hearth among other applications.

    Chapter 2 - Criteria for refractory concreteselection2.1 Introduction Refractory concrete is usually made with himina cement. It is not generally used as a smaterial and its primary purpose is as a prlining for steel, concrete or brick structures

    Some of the destructive forces that refractocretes withstand are abrasion, erosion, p

    considered a consumable material requiring

    abuse, high temperatures, thermal shock, molten metals, clinker, slag, alkalies, mild

    ment after an appropriate service life.

    acid fumes, expansion, contraction, carbon mand flame impingement.

    Refractory concretes are categorized as eitmal weight or lightweight. The former are aferred to as heavy refractory concretes latter are often called insulating refractorcretes. Table shows the characteristics otypical range of normal weight refractory coTable shows the characteristics of lightwrefractory concretes.

    2.2 Castables and field mixesRefractory concretes are usually prepared asite from materials supplied to the user in two ways: (1) prepackaged so-called refractory cast-ables; (2) field mixes.

    right American Concrete Institute

    --`,,,,````,``,``,`,,,``,`,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---idedeproPlastics are generally placed without use oWith the exception of some specialized tabumina castables, plastics have a somewhat hivice limit than castable refractories. Their main dadvantages are greater shrinkage anddevelopment. Except for phosphate bonde by IHS under license with ACI duction or networking permitted without license from alu-her ser-

    is-crack mate-

    ractorya rela-he lin-

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    fractory Gun-ting in-ally by


    nternal to theuse in


    Refractory castables are plant packagecomposed of ingredients that are weighedand usually bagged in convenient sizes forand handling. They require only mixing wion the job to produce refractory concretmixes are made from material components proportioned and mixed on the site just priaddition of water.

    2.5 Load bearing considerationsMost application designs of refractory concsider that there is a thermal gradient thrmaterial with heat conducted from the hothe cold face. A cross section of the refracusually have a layer at the hot face that ramic bond, an intermediate section with combination of ceramic and a partial hydrauand a cold face section that retains most draulic bond. Refractory concrete linings in of situation are usually well anchored and porting.

    Castables containing high proportions of cgregates produce refractory concrete with bearing characteristics. Certain types of rconcrete tend to have low strengths in tmediate temperature zones [1500-2250 F (820-1230 Cand should not be subjected to excessive mabuse or dead load. Generally, lightweight designed for insulating purposes should nojected to impact, heavy loads, abrasion, eother physical abuse. Normally, both the and the resistance to destructive forces dthe bulk density of the refractory concrcreases.

    There are a number of special refractory available which have better than average ing capabilities and withstand abrasionmuch better than the standard types.

    or erosion

    2.7 Corrosion influencesh alu-ructuraltective

    . It is

    ry con-ysical


    ot andcid ornoxide,

    er nor-lso re-nd the

    y con-f acretes;


    the jobither of

    High temperature in combination with a environment can have a serious deleteriousboth the concrete and the backup steel

    Alkalies can effect the service life of re

    Generally, the higher density, higher purit

    concretes. The furnace charge can give off h alka-lies (K2O) and the fuel sulfur compounds (SO 2) as va-

    tory concretes have better corrosion resist

    pors. These can penetrate into the pores fractory concrete and react; their reaction

    the lower density, lower purity types.

    cool, solidify, and expand, sometimes causinface of the refractory to peel or shear awa

    In certain applications, the refractory cosubjected to highly reducing conditions. Lrefractory concretes should be used for thiapplication.

    2.10 Abrasion and erosion resistanceAbrasion and erosion begin with the weariof the weakest matrix constituent, binderthe coarse or hard aggregate to eventuallyA hard aggregate, a high modulus of ruphigh compressive strength at the hot face sary for good abrasion and erosion resistanfractory concretes.Licensee=Aramco HQ/9980755100 Not for Resale, 07/26/2007 04:42:01 MDT



    xide, the

    are are

    (gravel)Fireclay, expanded

    resistantInsulating, abrasion and 1640




    Copyright AmProvided by No reproductAggregate of V2 in. (1.27 cm) or larger size:Retained on No. 8 Sieve = 50 pePassing No. 100 Sieve = 10-15 percen

    Aggregate of less than l/2 in. (1.27 cm) maximum size:Retained on No. 50 Sieve = 75 pPassing No. 100 Sieve = 10-15 percen

    *In special cases larger sizes have been used

    erican Concrete Institute

    IHS under license with ACI Lice

    Not ion or networking permitted without license from IHSt


    essfully.Fireclay brick,crushed

    Flint fireclay,calcined

    Kaolin, calcined


    Slag, blast furnace(air cooled)

    Slag, blast furnace(granulated)

    Trap rock, diabase

    corrosion resistantAbrasion and corrosion


    Abrasion and corrosionresistant

    Insulating(Silica content less

    than 90 percent not recommended)Abrasion and corrosionresistant

    Abrasion resistant

    Insulating, abrasion andcorrosion resistant

    (Basic Igneous Rock-Minimal Quartz) Abrasionand corrosion resistant



    1650 3000

    1650 30001340 2450300 570







    Vermiculite Insulating 1100 2010

    TABLE 3.3b - Aggregate grading

    Maximum size aggregate (except for gun placement)Maximum size aggregate for normal gun placementMaximum size insulating crushed firebrickMaximum size expanded shales and claysMaximum size, with the above exceptions, should

    not be greater than 20-25 percent of theconcrete minimum dimension.

    1 l/z in. (3.81 cm)I/4 in.* (0.64 cm)1 in. (2.54 cm)12 in. (1.27 cm)

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    3.2 Binders concrete. Cyclic heating and cooling tends to dportland cement concretes and adding a fine si-

    The binders principally used in refractory concretesare calcium aluminate cements. However, ASTM-type portland cements can be used in some refrac-tory applications up to an approximate maximum of2000 F (1090 C) with selected aggregates, if special

    liceous material to react with the calcium hydroformed during hydration, is helpful in alleviatingproblem.

    Calcium aluminate (high alumina) cementscommercially available hydraulic binders. They

    TABLE 3.3a- Maximum service temperature of selected aggregates mixed with calcium aluminate cementsunder optimum conditions

    Aggregate- - Remarks_

    Maximumt e m p e r a t u r e

    Deg C Deg F

    Alumina, tabular

    Dolomitic limestone

    Refractory, abrasionresistant

    Abrasion and corrosion




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    Copyright AProvided bNo reproduBinder selection is primarily based on thetemperature desired for the refractory Maximum service temperatures are extenincreasingAl2O3 and decreasing iron contLower iron content binders are also beneficducing carbon monoxide (CO) disintegrationcrete (Section 2.7).

    3.3 A g g r e g a t e sThe maximum service temperatures of segregates mixed with appropriate calcium acements are listed in Table 3.3a. These maximutemperatures are based on optimum conbinder and aggregate. Thermal properties gates, such as volume change (expansion, or crystalline inversion) and decompositionfect these maximum temperatures, along chemical composition of both aggregate anand the reactivity between these mix cons

    Temperature stability of the aggregate dthe maximum service conditions below imately 2400 F (1320 C). Therefore, any type ofcium aluminate cement can be used at theatures. For conditions above 2400 F (1320 C), binderpurity also becomes a design factor. Genelow purity binder can be used with propemy IHctispecifically designed for use in monolithic refractorconcrete construction. They are generally under three basic categories: Low Puritmediate Purity, and High Purity. This is aclassification scheme and is based primaritotal iron content of the cement.gates up to 2700 F (1480 C), intermediate purity t3000 F (1650 C) and high purity to 3400 F (1870 C).

    Aggregate gradation is an important conside

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    refractory properties, depending on the tygregate selected for the mix. Combinationsous aggregates can be made to secure theproperties of each.3.3.1 Lightweight aggregates - Perlite, expandshale, expanded fireclay, and bubble aluminmore commonly used lightweight aggregatemercial insulating concretes.

    3.4 Effects of extraneous materialsExtraneous materials commonly associatportland cements, either as admixtures or taminants from equipment or surroundintions, may behave differently when used cium aluminate cement mixes. Many ccontain proprietary additions which mayversely affected by field admixtures.

    Chapter 4 - Composition and proportioning4.1 IntroductionIn designing mixes, refractory concretes aredefined by density but also by operatingature. Refractory concretes fall into three sbased on service temperature ranges. Theclass is ceramically-bonded concrete, deconcrete in which the cement binder and thgregate particles react thermochemically tbond. This bond is referred to as the ceraand may occur at temperatures as low a(900 C). The second subclass is heat resiscrete, defined as concrete in which the ce



    dehydrated but has not formed a ceramic bond. Thethird category is concrete which still has some hy-draulic bond when heated but performs satisfactorily

    icas low asmic bond,

    ture shouldg a No.

    with pre-roportionsatch mixesin designing refractory concrete. Table 3.3b providessuggested guidelines for nominal maximum size andgrading of refractory aggregates.

    For refractory mix designs a 1:3 or 1:4 by bulkvolume dry basis cement: aggregate mix is generallyused to satisfy typical applications. In certain casesthe ratio may change from as low as 1:2 to as highas 1:6, with the latter being used for lightweightconcretes. Within the range of normal usage, in-creasing the cement content will provide higherstrength development. However, increased cementcontent may also result in increased shrinkage. Ahigher aggregate content will increase insulating or

    under cyclic conditions.

    4.3 Field mixes4 . 3 . 1 Ceramically bonded concrete - The cerambond can be formed at temperatures 1650 F (900 C). To aid formation of the ceraconcretes operating above this temperahave 10-15 percent of the aggregate passin100 sieve.

    Most field insulating concretes are madesoaked aggregate. Since the specified pare based on dry materials, the actual bmay require correction.

    erican Concrete Institute

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    Deg c

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    0 1 I 1 I I I I I 1

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    24h CURE TemperatureDEG F


    C h a p t e r 5 - I n s t a l l a t i o n

    5.1 IntroductionRegardless of the quality of the refractory aggregate, and/or castable, and regardless of tsearch devoted to the selection of correct for a specific application, maximum service not be obtained unless the refractory concrs in-stalled properly.

    The most frequently used methods of instfractory concretes are casting and shotcreting.

    5 . 2 C a s t i n g5.2.1 Mixing - Proper mixing of castables is omary importance. Care should be taken to avmixing previously hydrated material into fresh fractory concrete. Mixers, tools and transport

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    chemical reactions take place.Recent work illustrates the significant im

    mixing and curing temperatures on strengtties. Fig. 5.2.334 shows the flexural strength of tabular alumina, high purity cement castable plottedas a function of mixing and curing tempercan be seen that the strength developed ing and curing at 85 F (30 C) and drying at 230(110 C) is nearly twice that of the concrete miand cured at 60 F (15 C) and dried at 230 F.

    Explosive spalling of high purity cement ccan occur when casting and curing temperlow 70 F (21 C) are used. Thus, a refractory cocontaining a high purity cement should becured above 70 F (21 C). This spalling phenomenless likely to occur with low or intermediatcement binders.5 . 2 . 4 Transporting - Other than shotcreting pumping, the techniques for transporting concretes are similar to those used for portland ce-ment concrete. Some calcium aluminate cemers have a shorter placing time available.

    5.3 S h o t c r e t i n gShotcreting of refractory concrete is particufective where, (1) forms are impractical, (2) access isdifficult, (3) thin layers and/or variable thickare required, or (4) normal casting techniques cbe employed.5 . 3 . 1 Equipment - There are two basic types oshotcrete methods: dry-mix and wet-mix. e dry-mix method conveys the aggregate and binmatically to the nozzle in an essentially dwhere water is added in a spray. The wmethod conveys the aggregate, binder ana pre-determined amount of water, either pneum547R-8 MANUAL OF CON

    4.3.2 Heat resistant concrete - This concrete is geerally used in the range 930 F (500 C) to 1650 F (900C). Many coarse aggregates are unsuitable refractory aggregates because they contawhich has a large volume change at 1065 F C ) .

    4.4 Water contentA majority of the aggregates used in refracheat resistant concretes have high waterency. For this reason specific water/cemeare generally not used in developing mix destead, water requirements are arrived at bically conducting a ball-in-hand test (ASTM C860).This test is illustrated in Fig. 4.4. The correct watcontent is that which will provide a placeabthan a pourable, mix. When using well-soakegates, it may be necessary to add little or at the mixer. It is sometimes found that awhich appears fairly stiff when discharged ETE PRACTICE

    use as quartz,75

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    m theete is

    ing. Remains of lime, plaster, or portland cemenwill induce flash set and will lower refractor

    Generally, paddle mixers are used for smadium size jobs involving calcium aluminateconcretes. In a paddle mixer, normal weightory concretes should be mixed for about 2 Refractory concretes of less than 60 lbs/cu ft (960kg/m3) density should be mixed no longer thessary to insure thorough wetting. This pis necessary because the lightweight aggrebreak-up during the mixing action and redufectiveness of the concrete as a heat insufractory concretes in the 75 to 90 lb/cu ft (1200-1400kg/m3) range should be mixed for approximto 5 min. Because working time may be scastables should be cast immediately after 5 . 2 . 3 Mixing and curing temperature - Mixing andcuring temperature can affect the type offormed in set concrete. A castable develops its hdraulic bond because of chemical reactionsthe calcium aluminate cement and water. Tmaximum benefits from these chemical reais preferable to form the stable C3AH6 during thinitial curing period. The relative amount oC3AH6formed versus metastable CAH10 and C2AH8 can bedirectly related to the temperature at wa,under pressure, to the nozzle where compressed airis used to increase the velocity of impact. The drymethod, though it produces greater rebound, is theLicensee=Aramco HQ/9980755100 Not for Resale, 07/26/2007 04:42:01 MDT


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    --`,,,,````,``,``,`,,,``,`,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---most suitable and recommended techniqur shotcreting refractory concrete. An exception is ommended use of a wet-mix gun for hot p5 . 3 . 2 Installation - To ensure a uniform covfree of laminations and with minimum rebnozzleman should move the nozzle in a smaorbit and where possible, maintain the flowa 3-4 ft (0.9-1.2 m) distance at right angles to theing surface.355 The shotcrete should be left in as-placed state. If for some reason scraping ois required, the absolute minimum should bas to avoid breaking the bond or creatincracks. Shotcreting of refractory concretecrease the in-place density and result changes in the physical properties. This more pronounced in lower density castamust be taken into account when specifynesses and material quantities for insulatcations. The user should be aware that cpects of portland cement concrete shotcrete pdo not apply to refractory shotcrete.

    5.4 Pumping and extrudingCertain refractory concretes can be instapositive displacement pumps in conjunctrigid or flexible pipelines. The design of thcritical, and special attention must be givabsorptive characteristics and sizing of thgate.

    Some applicators use the term extrudinscribe the conveying and placing of refraccrete at velocities that are very low or closon exit from the pipeline. When extruding, the refractory castable and water can be done nally or externally depending on type of device.

    5.5 Pneumatic gun castingPneumatic gun casting, or gun casting, itively new technique for casting concrete aing increased uses for refractory concreventional dry shotcrete equipment and pare utilized with the exception that an eneing device is attached to the nozzle body inthe standard shotcrete nozzle tip.

    5.8 FinishingSurface finishing or rubbing of refractory cshould be kept at a minimum. Use of a steshould be avoided, and the final surfacelightly screeded to grade but should not be win any manner.

    Chapter 6 - Curing, drying , firing 8,16,17,18

    6.1 IntroductionRefractory concrete should be properly curleast the first 24 hr. Following this curing be dried at 220 F (105 C), and then heated til the combined water has been removed beheating at a more rapid rate.

    6.2 Bond mechanismsCalcium aluminate cements have anhydrouphases which react with water to form alumerican Concrete Institute y IHS under license with ACI Li

    Noction or networking permitted without license from IHS to de-y con-to zeroxing ofer-truding

    Fig. 6.2 - Hydration reaction products of caaluminates195

    and crystalline compounds which functiobinder for the concrete.20,21 The hydration of tha rela- is find-. Con-ceduresy reduc-place of

    ncretesl trowelcan berked

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    mineralina gel

    chemical reaction is relatively fast.22 For all practicapurposes, calcium aluminate concretes will full strength within 24 hr of mixing.

    The total drying shrinkage of calcium alucement concretes in air, is comparable to portland cement concrete. In order to provide focomplete hydration, and to control drying shrinkagespecial attention must be given to the curinractory concretes.

    6.3 CuringThe temperature of hardening calcium cemrapidly. If the exposed surfaces are not kepthe cement on the surface may dry out befobe properly hydrated. The application of curter prevents the surface from becoming drynishes water for hydration. In addition, the evapo-ration has a cooling effect which helps to dthe heat of hydration.

    Conversion of the high alumina cement hywhich occurs if the cement is allowed to devcessive heat, does not present the same prrefractory concretes that it does in high alumment concretes used for structural purposebeen shown that if refractory concrete is fuverted by allowing it to harden in hot watthen heated to 2500 F (1370 C), the fired strength equal to that obtained for well cured concretpossible, however, refractory concrete shouldcet rec-, theircular )m ceiv- ishingone sourfacean in-otherect iss, and thick- appli-ain as-tice

    with withix isto theaggre-


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    Copyright AmProvided by No reproducfor two reasons:l The entire refractory concrete structure usually reach the maximum service temand the higher cold strengths obtained by ing may be useful in the cooler portions ofractory.l If the temperature within the concrete rhigh level during hardening, the thermalproduced during cooling may be sufficient cracking.

    Curing should start as soon as the surfaceUnder normal atmospheric temperatures, occur within 4 to 10 hr after mixing the cThe concrete should be kept moist for 24 hering with wet burlap, by fine spraying or a curing membrane. Alternate wetting ancan be detrimental to the cure of the conc

    When using a curing membrane, the coshould contain a resin and not a wax bashould be applied to the surface as soon aafter placing and screeding. The reason for dcouraging the use of wax is that a hot surmelt the wax, causing it to be absorbed intocrete, breaking the membrane.

    6.4 D r y i n gThe large amount of free water in the reconcrete necessitates a drying period befsure to operating temperatures. Otherwisemation of steam may lead to explosive spaing firing.

    6 . 5 FiringFollowing drying of the refractory concrete,heat-up should be at a reasonably slow ratcal firing schedule, for a 9 in. (22.9 cm) thick liningconsists of applying a slow heat by graduaing the temperature up to 220 F (105 C), and holdinfor at least 6 hr. The temperature is then rrate of 50-100 F (10-40 C) per hr up to 1000(540 C) and again held for at least 6 hr. Thold is to allow remaining free water to eand the second hold is to eliminate the comter without danger of spalling.

    Beyond 1900 F (540 C), the temperature of thfractory concrete can be raised more rapid. Calcin-ing of the green concrete into a refractorywill take place between 1600 F (820 C) and 2500 (1370 C). Wall thickness and mix variations mquire somewhat different rates of heatinghold temperatures should remain at least 6

    If steam is observed during heat-up, theature should be held until steam is no longe

    Cbapter 7 - Properties of Normal WeightR e f r a c t o r y Concretes7.1 I n t r o d u c t i o nThere are various physical properties awhich are standard in the refractory induthese are usually provided in the material tions. Table is an example of typical datnormal weight refractory concrete.erican Concrete Institute IHS under license with ACI Licen

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    7.2 Maximum service temperatureThe recommended maximum service temwill normally assume that the castable will be usedin a clean, oxidizing atmosphere, such as iwhen firing with natural gas. The maximumtemperature is usually determined as thabove which excessive shrinkage will take is about 150-200 F (70-90 C) below the actual sening point of the concrete.

    If a fuel has solid impurities, such as in cheavy fuel oils, or if the solids or dust in thecontact the refractory, the maximum peservice temperature will usually be consideduced. Solid impurities can react with the and produce compounds of lower meltinwhich melt and run. This is generally referrslagging. The lower softening point thus rea limit for the operating temperature. Slagreactions usually do not occur below about(1320 C) except in the presence of alkalies wactions can occur in the 1900-2000 F (10400 C)range.

    A reducing atmosphere can lower the point and hence the maximum operatingature by 100-200 F (40-90 C) if sufficient quantitiesiron compounds are present in the refracto3

    7.4 Shrinkage and expansionIn discussing shrinkage and expansion of tory concrete, it is important to define tinction between the independent effectsper-manent shrinkage or expansion and reversiblethermal expansion. Permanent change is dby measuring a specimen at room temperaing it to a specified temperature, cooling temperature, and remeasuring it. The diffetween the two measurements is the permanentchange, which occurs during the first heatiSubsequent heating to the same or lowerature will have little or no additional effecpermanent change. Heating to a higher temay cause some additional permanent cha

    Reversible thermal expansion of a specimenhas been previously stabilized against furmanent change, is the dimensional change men is heated. Upon cooling, the specimento its original size.

    At any given temperature, the net dimensionachange of a refractory concrete is the sum versible expansion and the permanent shrinkage coresponding to the highest temperature to castable has been heated.7.4.1 Permanent shrinkage and expansion - The ini-tial heating of a refractory concrete usuallshrinkage. At higher temperatures permapansion can occur. This effect, which variesmaximum temperature attained, must be with reversible thermal expansion when cathe net expansion (or shrinkage) at service ature. The ASTM rating of castables is basemore than 1.5 percent permanent linear occurring at prescribed temperatures (ASC64and C401). Most normal weight refractory conwill have less than 0.5 percent permaneshrinkage after firing at 2000 F (1090 C).

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    CopyrigProvideNo reprues (k factors) range from about 5 Btu-in./sq ft -hr-F(72 W -cm/m2-C) for 120 pcf (1920 kg/m3) material tabout 10 Btu-in./sq ft -hr -F (144 W-cm/m2-C) for160 pcf (2560 kg/m3) material. There is usually an in-crease in thermal conductivity with temperatu

    7 . 1 0 S p e c i f i c b e a tThe specific heat of a refractory concrete with temperature from about 0.20 Btu/lb/F (837 J/kg-C) at 100 F (40 C) to about 0.29 Btu/lb/F (1210 J/kg-C) at 2500 F (1370 C). This can vary plus or minus0.025 units, depending on the aggregate.

    Chapter 8 - Properties of lightweightrefractory concretes8.1 I n t r o d u c t i o nRefractory concretes are widely used as imaterials. They have a wide range of densitht American Concrete Institute d by IHS under license with ACI oduction or networking permitted without license from IHSe.


    sulatinges (20 to

    212 500 1000 1500 2000 2500

    Temperature Deg F

    Fig. 7.5 - Effect of temperature on modulus of rup-ture7 . 5 . 2 Cold compressive strength (crushing) - Thetest is ordinarily run on 9 x 41/2 x 21/2 in. (22.9 x 11.4x 6.4 cm) specimens 9 in. (22.9 cm) straights iterminology with pressure applied to the surface (ASTM C133). Failure in this test is ally due to shear.

    Crushing strengths vary from 1000 to 8000to 55.2 MPa). Typically, compressive strengththree to four times greater than modulus ovalues.

    7 . 6 Thermal c o n d u c t i v i t yFor normal weight refractory concretes, conductivity tends to vary with density. Typ

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    Deg C4;. 260 540 820 1090_____ | | | |



    00 500 1000 1500 2000

    Temperature Deg F

    Fig. 7.4.2 - Net thermal expansion of a typicafractory concrete

    100 pcf (320 to 1600 kg/m3) and can be formulatehave high maximum service temperatures tively high strengths. This often allows theThe permanent change appears as cracksfirst firing. These cracks will generally be abft (0.6-0.9 m) on centers, and may vary, depon the concrete thickness and the anchorUsually, the width of the cracks at room ature is partly dependent on the permaneage. Normally, the cracks will be tightly coperating temperatures. Such cracking, whstart during drying, is to be expected andadversely affect the service performance ofractory.7.4.2 Reversible thermal expansion - The reversiblethermal expansion of most refractory concapproximately 3 x 10-6 in./in./F (5 x 10-6 cm/cm/CLHowever, the expansion coefficient may be aas 4 x 10-6 in./in./F (7 x 10-6 cm/cm/C) for high alu-mina concretes and to 5 x 10-6 in./in. /F (9 x 10-6cm/cm/C) for chrome castables. Fig. 7.4.2typical length changes due to permanent and reversible expansion.

    7.5 Strength7 . 5 . 1 Modulus of rupture - Modulus of rupture measured by means of a flexure test and ered as a measure of tensile strength (ASTM C268).The extreme fiber tensile strength calculathis test will be 50 to 100 percent highertensile strength derived from a straight pTypical modulus of rupture values are 300psi (2.07-10.4 MPa). Shotcreting can increase mlus of rupture values by up to 50 percent.

    Fig. 7.5 shows typical trends of modulus ture strength versus temperature.s consid-

    d fromhan thell test.o 1500du-



    psi (6.9 are rupture

    hermalal val-

    these materials as single component, exposlinings.

    Table shows physical property values fical lightweight refractory concretes.

    8.4 Shrinkage and expansionThe reversible thermal expansion of lightwecretes will vary from 2.5 x 10-6 to 3.5 x 1 O - 6 in./in./F(4.5 x l0-6cm/cm/C) Because of compensatingmanent shrinkage, the thermal expansion weight refractory concrete is normally insiand is usually ignored in the design of ligrefractory concrete systems.

    8 . 5 StrengthStrengths of lightweight refractory concretmeasured by both a modulus of rupture and aing test.8.5.1 Modulus of rupture - Typical values rangfrom approximately 50 (0.3 MPa) to 400 psi (2MPa).

    Deg C100 260 540 820 1090 1370

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    TABLE 8.5.1 - Hot and cold modulus of rupture of a 2800F (1538C) lightweight refractory









    ory con-g the ef- cycling,choring


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    Copyright AProvided by No reproductBtu/lb/F (1255 J/kg-C) at 2500 F (1370 C).

    Chapter 9 - Construction details8.1 IntroductionConstruction details are an important ingredient inthe successful application of refractory concrete.

    (540 C). Type 304 stainless is suitable for anchortemperatures of up to 1800 F (980 C) and Type 310stainless is adequate up to 2000 F (1095 C). Depend-

    ngs cann 1500 F wherem-sed as ate thick-

    f refrac- are Proper design details and careful implementation areessential, and parameters such as support structureintegrity, forms, anchors, and construction jointshave a major influence on the overall quality andperformance of refractory concrete installations.

    8.2 Support s t r u c t u r eNormally, refractory concrete is permanently sup-ported by a back-up structure. The support materialis usually bolted or welded steel which, prior to in-stallation of the refractory concrete, should bechecked to ensure that there is no warpage and thatall joints are structurally sound and tight.

    ing on the grade of alloy, alloy steel castisustain a maximum temperature of betwee(815 C) and 2000 F (1095 C).9 . 4 . 2 Pre-fired refractory anchors (ceramic anchors)- The principal use of ceramic anchors is torefractory plastic, rather than refractory However, ceramic anchors are used in arerefractory concrete is subjected to high service teperature. In addition, they are sometimes usubstitute for metal anchors where concrenesses are 9 in. (230 mm), or greater.

    Ceramic anchors usually are composed otory aggregates, clays, and binders. Theyme-

    merican Concrete Institute concrete containing expanded fireclay aggregate

    230F ( 1 1 0 C )1 0 0 0 F (538C)1 5 0 0 F (816C)2000F (1093C)2500F (1371C)2 7 0 0 F (1482C)

    (Hot testedat temperature)

    350 (2.4)300 (2.1)250 (1.7)210 (1.4)240 (1.7)90 (0.6)

    * N . D . = Not Determined

    Table 8.5.1 shows the difference between and hot modulus of rupture for a typical (1540 C) lightweight refractory concrete.

    8.6.2 Cold compressive strength (crushing) - Coldcrushing strengths vary from 200-500 psi MPa) for lightweight refractory concretes wisities up to 50 pcf (800 kg/m3). For materials havidensities in the 75-100 pcf (1200-1600 kg/m3) range,the cold crushing strength varies from 1000(6.9-17-3 MPa).

    8 . 6 Thermal conductivityThermal conductivity is one of the most imphysical properties of a lightweight refractocrete and is controlled primarily by the dethe concrete. For hydraulically bonded, alulica concretes, a usable correlation exists concrete density [after drying at 230 F (110 C)] andthe thermal conductivity (k factor). Typically, ththermal conductivity for insulating concretefrom 1 to 4 Btu-in./sq ft-hr-F (0.1 to 0.6 W/M2-C).

    8.10 Specific HeatThe specific heat of a lightweight refractocrete is approximately the same as that oweight concrete. The range is from 0.2 Btu/lb/F(837 J/kg-Cl at 100 F (40 C) to approximately 0

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    350 (2.4) N . D . * 250 (1.7) 225 (1.6) 470 (3.2) 800 (5.5)

    e cold00 F

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    8.3 FormsBoth metal and wood forms are used for rconcrete.

    9 . 4 Anchors 41,44,45,46

    An anchor is a device used to hold refractcrete in a stable position while counteractinfects of dead loads, thermal stressing andand mechanical vibration. Anchors and ansystems are not designed to function as ment.

    Anchors are produced as alloy steel rods ings, and prefired refractory ceramic shapesquirements of a particular installation will dthe type and positioning of anchors. Typicato be considered are: unit size, wall thickneber of refractory concrete components, areacation, and service temperature.9 . 4 . 1 Metal anchors - The most frequently umetal anchors are V-clips, studs, and castinever, in special applications, welded wire fasteel and chain link fencing are used. Gemetal anchors are extended from the cold2/3 to 3/4 of the lining thickness and are stato avoid formation of planes of weakness.

    Metal V-clips, stud anchors and castings aable in carbon steel, Type 304 stainless all310 stainless alloy, and other suitable allchoice of material depends on the tempewhich the anchors will be exposed. Carbon be used for anchor temperatures of up tosee=Aramco HQ/9980755100 or Resale, 07/26/2007 04:42:01 MDT


    e rim


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    CopyrighProvidedNo reprochanically pressed into shapes which providtachment to either the wall or roof and are aid in securing the refractory concrete. Cerachors are pre-fired at elevated temperature to pro-vide a strong, dense structure. Dependingcomposition, service conditions, and other faceramic anchors are available with maximumtemperature ratings of up to 3200 F (1760 C).

    Ceramic anchors are attached to structuraroof supports by bolts and/or metal suppoings. In order to minimize the tendency offractory concrete to sheet spall, the hot facceramic anchor should extend to the hot farefractory concrete.9 . 4 . 6 . 1 Thin single component linings. Plain metalchain link fencing is often used to anchor sinponent linings, less than 2 in. (50 mm) thick, composed of lightweight or medium weight reconcrete and exposed to low to moderate mstresses and/or service temperatures.9 . 4 . 5 . 2 Single component linings up to 9 in. (230 mm)thick. Normally, single component linings (50 mm) to 9 in. (230 mm) thick, composed enlightweight, medium weight or normal weifractory concrete, and exposed to moderatand service temperatures use metal ancho9 . 4 . 5 . 3 Single component linings greater than 9 (230 mm) thick. Normal weight refractory conlinings, greater than 9 in. (230 mm) thick, uther ceramic or metal anchors. The type ochosen will depend on the operating param9.4.5.4 Roofs. Two types of anchor systems, inand external, are used for single componeThe choice depends on roof thickness and struction and design preferences. Multicomponent linings. Multicomponent linings of 9 in. (230 mm) or less in thickness wsubjected to moderate service temperatureschanical stresses should employ metal anch

    Multicomponent linings of 9 in. (230 mgreater thickness, composed of a combinationlightweight or medium weight refractory conback-up in conjunction with a normal weighttory concrete, can use a combination of cermetal anchors.

    With multicomponent shotcrete linings, thup component is applied directly to the shprovisions must be made either to protectchor (metal or ceramic) from rebound build-uclean the anchor after placing of the back-uRebound build-up can destroy the grip betwheavy weight refractory concrete and the anchor.

    9 . 5 R e i n f o r c e m e n t a n d m e t a l e m b e d m e n tThe use of steel as a reinforcement shavoided. In general, the metal will cause due to the differential expansion, caused byature or oxidation, between the metal and For the same reason heavy metal objectsbolts, pipes, etc. should never be embeddfractory concrete.t American Concrete Institute by IHS under license with ACI Li

    Noduction or networking permitted without license from IHSfor at-bbed to

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    8.6 JointsIn cast installations, construction joints occujunction of walls and roofs or where largements are broken into separate sections. Cof this type will not bond and should be where it is necessary to contain liquid or ga

    It is often necessary to include a provisionpansion. Expansion joints can be formed by materials such as wood, cardboard, expandstyrene or ceramic fiber in the appropriate

    Shotcrete installations require constructioat transitions between materials, or whecation must be curtailed due to shift changeterial supply. In these cases, the in situ refrconcrete should be trimmed back to producedge perpendicular to the shell. Expansiopensating materials are not generally insethis type of joint. If a joint edge is allowed to sfor a prolonged period of time (more than 4 hr), itshould be thoroughly moistened before any terial is applied.

    Chapter 10 - Repair

    10.1 IntroductionRepair of refractory concrete should be coonly when economics dictate that cost and ddo not justify complete replacement. Befortaking a repair, an effort should be made mine the cause of the previous failure. If the design and/or construction details shmodified to reduce the possibility of a recurfailure and to prolong service life between r

    Hot repair techniques are valuable for midowntime and for extending an operating ruscheduled shutdown. Hot repairs are especiable for temporary repairs of localized failuhot spots.

    10.2 Failure mechanismsSome of the phenomena that can cause fail(1) Thermal stress and thermal shock; (2) Exposureto excessive temperatures; (3) Mechanical loadin(4) Erosion and abrasion: (5) Corrosive environmen(6) Anchorage failures and (7) Operational por upsets.

    10.3 Surface preparationWhen the installation to be repaired is madetar or concrete, it is important to prepare face of the old material so that a mechaniwill be formed between it and the new reconcrete. No significant chemical bond wilformed, and adhesion of the repair material pend primarily on the mechanical bond. Preof the surface requires removal of all deterispalled materials and roughening of the sound surface of the old concrete. In all cachipping of old material must leave a flat bsquare shoulders approximately perpendiculhot face, completely around the perimeter opair section. If this is done properly, there ineed to chamfer the edges or provide filletsand floors. Once initial removal of loose conc

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  • 547R-14

    been completed, the old refractory should beta



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    Copyright AmProvided by IHNo reproductisounded with bars or hammers to make cersound material remains.

    Areas that were not chipped should be thsandblasted to remove any traces of soot, gor other substances that could interfere bond. Excess sand and loose debris must blown from the surface with compressed ticular care must be taken to remove anfrom around the anchors.

    10.4 Anchoring and bondingIf possible, patches should be anchored withimum of two anchors which should be soltached to the shell. In cases where this is imanchors should be solidly embedded in thefractory. Ceramic anchors should extend toface of the new refractory concrete. Othsheet spalling may occur. If metal anchors they should be brought as close as possibhot face. The distance will depend on thelurgy of the anchors and the thermal conduthe concrete.

    Where anchors are not practical, or repshallow, mechanical bonding will be aided bychases or keyways in a waffle pattern across thtire surface of the repair section and by sligdercutting the existing refractory.

    In certain limited applications, where otheare not available, the bond may be improvey pre-coating the surface to be repaired with a agent. When repairing refractory concrete similar cast-in-place material pre-wetting is and use of a neat calcium aluminate cememay improve bonding.

    1 0 . 5 R e p a i r m a t e r i a l sA wide range of repair products is availablepairing refractory concrete. However, it is best to use a material similar to that being

    Refractory concrete is frequently used as material and performs satisfactorily in mantions. Among the other available repair mare the following:

    1. Air setting mortars;2. Phosphate-bonded and clay-based hea

    mortars;3. Steel-fiber reinforced refractory con

    (Steel-fiber reinforced refractory concrete wially exhibit superior resistance to cracking asion. However, the fibers will not perform wetemperatures to which they are exposed indation. If the conditions are such that the fiforced system is above the oxidizing, but bmelting temperature of the particular fibeused, it is possible that they may still be utilpending on the temperature gradient thrconcrete, the furnace atmosphere, the perof the concrete, the severity and frequencyperature cycles, the exposure time at maximperature, and the mechanical loading.)

    4. Plastic refractories and ramming mixes;5. Hot repair materials. Some of the repa

    rials used for hot patching contain calcium acement as the principal binder, however, erican Concrete Institute S under license with ACI Licen

    Not foon or networking permitted without license from IHSin only

    oughlyease, oilith thehen ber. Par- debris

    a min-ly at-ossible,old re-the hotrwise,e used, to themetal-ivity of

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    and mate-minateost do

    binders (see Section 1.6.4). Since these materialsintended for temporary repairs, they may service life or properties equivalent to thosoriginal lining.

    While field mixes can be used for hot gmost applications use proprietary (prepackaterials which are specially designed for specditions of installation. Some manufacturers have designed special spray or gunning equipment anmaintenance programs to install their hot rterials on a planned basis.

    1 0 . 6 R e p a i r t e c h n i q u e s1 0 . 6 . 2 Refractory concrete - When a refractory cocrete is selected to effect repairs, the type ment procedure must insure that the full of the repair section is installed in as short possible, preferably in a single lift.

    When refractory concrete is placed by tshot-crete method, certain precautions must e fol-lowed.35 The area being repaired must be dein advance so that the concrete can be shfull section depth or thickness before any velops an initial set.

    It is important that the refractory conccured properly during the 24-hr period followinplacement (see Section 6.3). After the concrete been moist-cured for 24 hr, drying and firininitiated (see Sections 6.4 and 6.5). Speeding up tmoist-curing, drying and firing can result marked reduction in the physical propertiesof the repair.1 0 . 6 . 3 Plastic and ramming mixes - A refractormortar coating may be used to improve when repairing refractory concrete with a pramming mix. In order to achieve high denprevent laminations, it is recommended threfractories be installed by the pneumatic method using a steel wedge-type head. Tpattern of ramming should be to build up plastic on top of the backing wall. The pplaced in strips and laid at right angles to tIt is important to angle the pneumatic rathat the strips are driven against the form,ways against the previously installed materepaired area should be trimmed to a rougfor more uniform drying.

    Moisture escape holes should be made bya 1/8 in. (3 mm) diameter pointed rod, aimately two-thirds of the depth of the matapproximately 6 in. (150 mm) centers. In orderprevent formation of an outer skin, which camoisture, a short period of forced drying oting plastic refractories is desirable. Excessperature or direct flame impingement, whseal the surface and prevent escape of must be avoided.

    The following heat-curing procedure hafound to give good results with plastic and mixes: Remove all free moisture at a tempnot over 250 F (120 C). Following removaland absorbed moisture, raise the temperarate of 75-100 F (42-56 C) /hr until the desired oper-

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  • ating temperature is reached. If steam is observedre


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    Copyright AProvided bNo reproduduring heat-up, hold the present temperatustops.

    Whenever possible, repairs using plastic mshould be carried out immediately prior to heA properly burned-in plastic will exhibit less cing than a plastic exposed to lengthy air drying.10.6.4 Steel-fiber reinforced refractory concrete10.6.4.1 Cast-in-place mixes. A problem with steel fi-bers is their tendency to ball-up. Clusterscan be broken up by hand feeding or shaksieve before addition to the concrete mix. cases, vibration will tighten up the fiber clusit is not a recommended method of fiber dis

    The addition of steel fibers tends to redworkability of the mix. Normally, this can bcome by internal or external vibration. Use tional water is not recommended since thisgrade cured strength and increase the por10.6.4.2 Shotcrete mixes. Steel fiber reinforced rfractory concretes can be shot into place bthe wet or dry process. Fiber lengths appthe internal diameter of the material hose can be shot successfully. Because rebound of thebers can be dangerous, the nozzleman and screw should wear protective clothing when dryshooting with steel fibers.10.6.5 Hot repair procedures - Hot repair pro-cedures are based on standard shotcretinology. However, because of the high tempcertain differences are necessary. Comparemal shotcreting, the high temperatures rspecially designed nozzle and an excessive awater in the mix in order to insure proper impingement, compaction, and material ret

    Hot shotcreting requires that the nozzlemhelper stand outside the furnace and mamechanically manipulate an extended nolance within the furnace. Special ports or must be provided in the furnace for propeThe length, size, and design of the nozzle dethe furnace configuration, temperature, andapplication.

    In general, the best bonds are achieved wvessel interior is a red or orange color (1500(815-925 C)]. The refractory concrete repair mallowed to heat-cure prior to placing the uniservice. The length of time to accomplish though usually brief, will depend on the temat the time of repair, the type of material used forthe repair, and the thickness of the installrial.

    Chapter 11- Applications1 1.1 IntroductionRefractory concretes are currently used in a widevariety of industrial applications where pyroprocess-ing or thermal containment is required. there are literally hundreds of refractory cavailable, it is impossible to discuss every ction and its application. Accordingly, only thimportant applications, where refractory cohave been used successfully, are reviewed. Iin the review are the following industries:merican Concrete Institute y IHS under license with ACI Li

    Noction or networking permitted without license from IHS until it

    f fibersg of the some

    ers andersal.ce the over-f addi-

    will de-sity.- either

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    elivery,ntion.n and aually orzle or

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    hen the1700 Fst beback inhis, al-perature

    d mate-

    ecausencretesmposi- morecretescluded

    (b)lNon-ferrous metal(c)lPetrochemical(d)lCeramic processing(e)l Glass(f) Steam power generation(g) Aerospace(h)lNuclear(i) Gas production(j) MHD power generation(k) Lightweight aggregate(l) Incinerator(m) Cement and lime

    Chapter 12 -New development and future useof refractory concrete12.1 IntroductionTraditionally, developments in the refractodustry have been closely related to the produstries, the primary customers for the pro

    In recent years, there have been marked in the production and use of refractories. A of factors have contributed to these changeing:

    (a) development of new and improved indprocesses,

    (b) demand for higher temperatures and inproduction rates associated with the abovopments,

    (c) improvement in the quality of refractoryucts and increased use of different types otories, especially the monolithic castables an

    (d) increased technical knowledge of the behavior of refractory materials.

    With these technological advancemenvestigations into the use of refractory concspecial applications is increasing. Typical onew and proposed applications are incineratgasification plants, chemical process plants, splants, and foundries.

    12.2 New d e v e l o p m e n t s1 2 . 2 . 1 Steel fibers187,188,189,191 - The following potential advantages are offered by the use of sreinforcement in monolithic construction:

    (a) improved flexural strength at ambient andvated temperatures,

    (b) improved thermal and mechanical strestance,

    (c) improved thermal shock resistance,(d) improved spall resistance, and(e) improved load-carrying ability.However, degradation of the steel fibers

    temperature can occur under service condittherefore, limit the full potential of these mNote: See References 197 through Shotcrete - The use of shotcrete for new fractory construction and for repairs is a growing field and successful results haveachieved in many applications.1 2 . 2 . 3 Precast shapes - Increasingly, precast shapare being used for special conditions and thwill continue.

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    12.3 Research requirementsUnfortunately, selection and use of refractory con-cretes is still considered an art and, with a few ex-ceptions, the properties of refractory concretes arenot utilized in rational design schemes. In many in-stances, the wrong properties are being measured orthe available data are not being used correctly.

    Future research efforts should be directed to-wards obtaining a better understanding of t

    e e










    n Ae-.De




    46. Vaughn, S. H., Jr., Guidelines for Selection of Mon-olithic Refractory Anchoring Systems, Iron and Steel En-gineer, May 1972, p. 64.

    187. Lankard, D. R., and Sheets, H. D., Use of SteelWire Fibers in Refractory Castables, American CeramicSociety Bulletin, V. 50, No. 5, 1971, pp. 497500.

    188. Lankard, D. R.; Bundy, G. B.; and Sheets, H. D.,Strengthening Refractory Concrete, Industrial Process



    efrac-ate Ce-, V.


    980.lica-efinersnce Con-


    tionSympo-echnol-ty, St.


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    51.ry Con-




    Copyright AmeProvided by IHNo reproductiohavior of refractory concretes under servictions. Increased emphasis will be placed ontemperature properties and how they are by such factors as proportioning, grading ad composition.

    Areas of needed research include the fol(a) Dimensional stability(b) Chemical attack(c) Mechanical properties(d) Property measurements and tests(e) Process conditions(f) Rational design procedures

    References1. ACI Committee 116, Cement and Concrete Termin

    ogy, SP-19, American Concrete Institute, Detro146 pp.

    2. Van Schoeck, Emily C., Editor, Ceramic GlossaryAmerican Ceramic Society, Columbus, 1963.

    3. Norton, F. H., Refractories, 4th Edition, McGraw-HBook Company, New York, 1968, 782 pp.

    5. Robson, T. D., High Alumina Cements and ConcJohn Wiley and Sons, New York, 1962, 263 pp.

    20. Chatterji, S., and Jeffry, J. W., MicrostrucSet High-Alumina Cement Pastes, Transactions, BritishCeramic Society (London), V. 67, May 1968, pp. 171-183.

    21. Midgley, H. G., The Mineralogy of Set High-Amina Cement, Transactions, British Ceramic Society (Lon-don), 1966, pp. 161-187.

    22. Wygant, J. F., Cementitious Bonding in CeramicFabrication, Ceramic Fabrication Processes, W. D. Kingery, Editor, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1958, pp171-198.

    34. Givan, G. V.; Hart, L. D.; Heilich, R. P.; ad Mac-Zura, G., Curing and Firing High Purity Calciumnate Bonded Tabular Alumina Castables, American Cramic Society Bulletin, V. 54, No. 8, 1975, pp. 710-713

    35. Shotcreting, SP-14, American Concrete Institute, troit, 1966, 223 pp.

    41. Wygant, J. F., and Crowley, M. S., Designingolithic Refractory Vessel Linings, American Ceramic Sciety Bulletin, V. 3, No. 3, 1964, pp. 173-182.

    44. Crowley, M. S., Failure Mechanism of Two-Coponent Lining for Flue-Gas Dust, American Ceramic Society Bulletin, V. 47, No. 5, 1968, pp. 481-483.

    45. Crowley, M. S., Metal Anchors for Refractory Con-cretes, American Ceramic Society Bulletin, V. 45, No. 71966, pp. 650-652.rican Concrete Institute S under license with ACI Licens

    Not fon or networking permitted without license from IHShe be- condi-levatedluenced




    re of






    Heating (London), V. 13, No. 3, Mar. 1973. pp. 34-47.189. Lankard, D. R., Steel Fiber Reinforced Refra

    Concrete, Refractory Concrete, SP-57, American ConcreInstitute, Detroit, 1978, pp. 241-263.

    191. Fowler, T. J., Lessons Learned from RefracConcrete Failures, Refractory Concrete, SP-57, AmericanConcrete Institute, Detroit, 1978, pp. 283-303.

    195. Tseung, A. L. L., and Carruthers, T. G., Rtory Concretes Based on Pure Calcium Aluminments, Transactions, British Ceramic Society (London)62, 1963, pp. 305-321.

    197. Peterson, J. R., and Vaughan, F. H., Metal FiberReinforced Refractory for Petroleum Refinery Ations, Paper No. 51, Presented at Corrosion/80, NationalAssociation of Corrosion Engineers, Pittsburgh, 1

    198. Crowley, M. S., Steel Fiber in Refractory Apptions, Paper No. MC-81-5. National Petroleum RAssociation Refinery and Petrochemical Maintenaference, Pittsburgh, 1981.

    199. Venable, C. R., Jr., Refractory RequirementsAmmonia Plants, American Ceramic Society Bulletin, V.48, No. 12, 1969, pp 1114-1117.

    200. Farris, R. E., Refractory Concrete: InstallaProblems and Their Identification, 18th Annual sium on Refractories-Changes in Refractory Togy-In Place Forming, American Ceramic SocieLouis Section, The Engineers Club, Mar. 12, 1982

    201. MacZura, G.; Hart, L. D.; Heilich, R. P.; and Ko-panda, J. E., Refractory Cements, Ceramic Engand Science Proc.-Raw Materials for Refractorieference, (4) 1-2, 1983, pp. 46-67.

    202. Standard Recommended Practices for Ding Consistency of Refractory Concretes, (ASTM860-77), 1982 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Part 17.American Society for Testing and Materials, Philapp. 932-937.

    203. Standard Recommended Practice for PRefractory Concrete Specimens by Casting, (ASTM77), 1982 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Part 17,American Society for Testing and Materials, Philapp. 940-946.

    204. Standard Recommended Practice for Fifractory Concrete Specimens, (ASTM C 865-77) 1982 An-nual Book of ASTM Standards, Part 17, American Societyfor Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, pp. 949-9

    205. Standard Practice for Preparing Refractocrete Specimens by Cold Gunning, (ASTM C 903-79) 1982Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Part 17, American So-ciety for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, pp.

    The complete report was submitted to letter ballot of the comittee which consisted of 16 members; 16 members returned af-firmative ballots.The preceding report was a summary. The complete report wbe available in May as a separate publication.

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  • I. Leon GlassgoldChairman

    Henry E. AnthonisSeymour A. BortzWilliam E. BoydKhushi R. Chugh


    A C I Committee 547

    Refractory Concrete

    Timothy J. FowlerE d i t o r

    Sidney DiamondWilliam A. DrudyJoseph E. KopandaSvein KopfeltDavid R. Lankard

    Joseph HeneghanSecretary

    William S. NetterRichard C. OlsonWilliam C. RaisbeckRichard L. Shultz

    Copyright American Concrete InProvided by IHS under license wNo reproduction or networking p

    --`,,,,````,``,``,`,,,``,`,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---stitute ith ACI Licensee=Aramco HQ/9980755100

    Not for Resale, 07/26/2007 04:42:01 MDTermitted without license from IHS

    MAIN MENUContents of summaryChapter 1 - IntroductionChapter 2 - Criteria for refractory concreteChapter 3 - Constituent ingredientsChapter 4 - Composition and proportioningChapter 5-InstallationChapter 6 - Curing, drying, firingCbapter 7 - Properties of Normal Weight Refractory ConcretesChapter 8 - Properties of lightweight refractory concretesChapter 9 - Constraction detailsChapter 10 - RepairChapter 12 - New development and future use of refractory concreteChapter 11 - Applications