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inyar Tewar; Number 49 · June 2007 Contents Eldarin Hands, Fingers & Numels and Related Writings-Part ree· - fR.R. Tolkien ISSN 1054-7606 . ' Five Late Quenya Volitive Inscriptions ' ' -f.R.R. Tolkien De p artments E ditor's Musings 2 Resources 59
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  • rtlinyar Tengwar; Number 49 · June 2007


    Eldarin Hands, Fingers & Numerals and Related Writings-Part Three·

    - f.R.R. Tolkien

    ISSN 1054-7606

    . '

    Five Late Q uenya Volitive Inscriptions ' :$.� ' -f.R.R. Tolkien


    E ditor's Musings 2 Resources 59

  • Page 2 Vinyar Ter{gwar · Number 49 June 2007 --�----------------�----�------�------------------

    Editor's Musings I must apologize for the vast length of time between this issue and the

    last. This is partly due to the tim� it can take to research matters in Tolkien's linguistic papers, as was done extensively for this issue; but it is mostly due to your editor having been asked to contribute two distinct and substantial accounts of Tolkien's invented languages to Michael Drout's f.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia (Routledge, 2006) and to a forthcoming book on invented languages edited by Michael Adams for Oxford University Press, and to write a lengthy account of the first fifty years of Tolkienian Linguistics for the forthcoming vol. 4 of Drout et al., eds., Tolkien Studies (West Virginia University Press). Whew!

    This issue features the third and final part of Patrick Wynne's presentation of "Eldarin Hands, Fingers & Numerals and Related Writings': which concludes with an analysis of the seven versions of a Quenya text concerning Elvish ambidexterity, and features an appendix presenting Tolkien's late writings on the verb nii 'to be: several forms of which appear in these texts.

    This issue also features my prese ntation of five late Quenya volitive inscriptions in nai, ranging from 1964 to 1969, one of which arose on the same sheet as the Ambidexters Sentence XAS). Presented as appendices to this are two late sets of notes on Quenya pronominal inflections and related forms-dating from 19 64 and c. 19 68, respectively-which shed further light on the pronominal endings encountered in the inscriptions, and in the AS.

    Please note the addition te the standard bibliographic citations on the back cover of an important new work from Christina Scull and Wayne Hammond, the two- volume ].R.R. Tolkien Companion and Guide (HarperCollins, 2007), which is both an important new source and a new standard reference for Tolkien's life and writings. Citations of the two volumes use the forms CG1 and CG2, respectively. I would also like to take this opportunity to thank Christina and Wayne for this monumental work, without which I would not have deduced the meaning of the first inscription presented in my article.

    Finally, I remind all readers that Vinyar Tengwar will undergo a format change and a switch to per-issue ordering after the publication of issue so. Starting with issue 51 , VT will be produced and published solely through the printon-demand services ofLulu.com (http://www.lulu.com/ELF).

    - Carl F. Hostetter

    "cor sapientis in dextera eius et cor stulti in sinistra illius." 'A wise man's heart is at his right hand; but a fool's heart at his left:

    - Ecclesiastes 10:2

    Vinyar Tengwar is produced by the editor on an Apple MacBook Pro with Adobe InDesign CS3. V T is set in the Adobe Minion Pro and Gentium OpenType font families,

    and further employs Johan Winges Tengwar Annatar True Type font.

  • June 2007 Vinyar Tengwar · Number 49 ___________ _:___

    Eldarin Hands, Fingers & Numerals and Related Writings-Part Three

    by J.R.R. Tolkien

    Edited by Patrick H. Wynne

    Tolkien's texts copyright ©2007 The Tolkien Trust

    IV. The Ambidexters Sentence

    Page 3

    In the late essay Eldarin Hands, Fingers & Numerals (HFN), J.R.R. Tolkien describes the concept of handedness among the Eldar in a section entitled "Left and Right': which begins with the following passage (VT 47=9 ) :

    No distinction was felt between right and left by the Eldar. There was nothing queer, ill-omened (sinister) , weak, or inferior about the 'left'. Nor anything more correct and proper (right) , of good omen, or honour about the 'right'. The Eldar were 'ambidexters', and the allocation of different habitual services or duties to the right or the left was a purely individual and personal matter, undirected by any general inherited racial habit.1

    As I noted in my introduction to HFN in VT 47, there also exist "two untitled pages, one in manuscript and the other typed, bearing several successive versions of a sentence in Quenya (with English translation) concerning Elvish ambidexterity and the significance of the left hand; this 'Ambidexters Sentence' appears to have been based on portions of the section 'Left and Right' in HFN" (VT47:4-5 ) . There are seven versions o f the Ambidexters Sentence i n all, which will b e referred t o here a s A S 1-7. Th e two pages o n which these versions occur were not placed with HFN but are found instead in two separate locations in "Quenya C': a boxfile containing many writings contemporary with HFN (c. 1968); Tolkien later used the backs of both pages for notes unrelated to HFN, and then placed each page with other manuscripts to which the new notes pertained.

    AS 1-3 were written in ballpoint pen on the blank side of a torn half-sheet, the lower half of an Alien & Unwin notice of out-of-print books dated 12th January, 1968 . The half-sheet itself bears no date, but intact copies of the same notice found in this bundle of manuscripts (a sheaf of miscellaneous notes placed in a brown folder, mostly written on A&U waste paper from 1968) have this date printed at the top. Tolkien began the manuscript by writing a sentence in English at the top of the half-sheet:

    Elves were ambidextrous :. left had no "sinister" connexions (rather the reverse) since facing West (usual) left pointed away from Morgoth, and facing North it pointed to Aman. 2

  • Page 4 Vinyar Tengwar · Number 49 June 2007

    The similarity between the first two lines of this sentence and phrases from the section "Left and Right" in HFN is obvious-HFN states that "The Eldar were 'ambidexters"' and "There was nothing queer, ill-omened (sinister) , weak, or inferior about the 'left' " -and there seems little reason to doubt that the Ambidexters Sentence was inspired by HFN, a conclusion further supported by the contemporary date of the texts. While it is also possible that the order of influence was the other way round, the idea that the left hand had a specifically positive connotation in addition to its lack of "sinister connexions" has no equivalent in HFN, which suggests that this concept in the Ambidexters Sentence is a later elaboration.3

    AS 1 was written a short distance below the English sentence, and in the space between them Tolkien also wrote a partial conjugation of '>lna 'to be' (this is presented in an appendix below, along with other late writings on the verb 'to be' ) . This conjugation was added only after AS 1 had been begun, since the past, perfect, and future forms in the paradigm were written to avoid the first line of the Quenya sentence. Tolkien emended the Quenya word for 'were' in the first line of AS 1 at least twice before finally settling on ntlner, and this uncertainty apparently led him to clarify his thoughts on 'to be' at this time. AS 2 was mostly written in the narrow margin to the left of AS 1, with one phrase squeezed in between the second and third lines of the earlier version. AS 3, which appears at the bottom of the half-sheet, is also accompanied by two alternative endings for the first line, one written above the text and the other below.

    Also sharing the page with AS 1-3 is an unrelated Quenya sentence without translation, the beginning of which, Nai siluvat elen atta renna, appears immediately below AS 1 and 2. The conclusion of the sentence, veryanweldo, was written at the bottom of the page below AS 3 and its two alternative phrases. This sentence is the first draft of a Quenya wedding greeting also extant in two later versions; see Carl F. Hostetter's article "Five Late Quenya Volitive Inscriptions" in this issue.

    On the printed side of the half-sheet Tolkien also wrote a short glossary of Quenya words from the Ambidexters Sentence, hastily jotted in ballpoint using the same orientation as the printed text of the notice; this will be referred to as "Glossary 1" (for citations from this glossary, see entries hya, umara, sfmaryassen, ve senya, tentane, and Melcorello in the analysis below) . Tolkien subsequently rotated the half-sheet 90° and overwrote both Glossary 1 and the printed text with a new layer of notes using a different, wide-nibbed pen. These new notes concern the etymology of S . mae govannen and are clearly related to another page of notes on mae govannen, placed in the same bundle of manuscripts and written on both sides of an intact copy of the same A&U notice appearing on the torn half-sheet. The nib pen used to write this related page-on which Tolkien wrote the date "Aug. 23, '69"-was apparently the same pen used for the overwritten notes on the half-sheet. Since one of the later versions of the Quenya wedding greeting also bears the date '1\ug. 1969", it seems likely that AS 1-3 were written in August 1969 or shortly before.

    Additional vocabulary notes pertaining to the Ambidexters Sentence are found on one of several narrow slips of paper placed immediately after the half-

  • June 2007 Vinyar Tengwar · Number 49 Page 5

    sheet; the contents of this slip will be referred to as "Glossary 2': The notes on m6 'anyone, someone',4 mii 'anything', im- 'same: etc. presented in VT47:37 n.s8 were taken from Glossary 2, and the remaining material found on this slip is given in the entries for an and ke in the analysis below.

    AS 4-7 were typed on the blank side of yet another copy of the same A&U notice appearing on the half-sheet used for AS 1-3. This in itself suggests that no great time passed between the composition of the manuscript and typescript texts of the Ambidexters Sentence. Moreover, Glossary 1 on the reverse side of the manuscript lists Q. senya 'usual: a word that appears in all the typescript texts but is not used in the manuscript versions-AS 3 has senwa instead, and no Quenya form for 'usual' appears in AS 1 and 2 .

    The printed side of the typescript was later used for notes in ballpoint pen detailing the development of medial consonant combinations in Quenya, and the page was placed, along with two other sheets of contemporary notes about Quenya consonant combinations, after a cardboard divider labeled "Phonology':

    AS 4, AS 6, and AS 7 are each accompanied by English translations; AS 5 is not, since the Quenya text of this version was not completed. The translations of AS 4 and AS 6 are unfinished and tend to the literal; for example, in AS 4 hyarmen is glossed 'lefthand-directioll. The translation accompanying the final version, AS 7, is complete and more polished in style, and below the Quenya text of this version Tolkien also typed an etymological note on epetai 'consequentlY: All the emendations made to AS 4-6 were done in the act of typing, while AS 7 has one typed emendation and two made in ink using a nib pen.

    All seven versions of the Ambidexters Sentence were written as single, continuous paragraphs. The Quenya and English texts are here editorially arranged into five lines corresponding to the lineation of the original English sentence preceding AS 1 , in which each line forms a convenient and coherent phrase.5 Each version of the Ambidexters Sentence is presented in its final emended form, followed by a list of emendations made to that version. The texts are followed by a detailed analysis of forms, which draws extensively on Tolkien's contemporary unpublished linguistic writings.

  • Page 6 Vinyar Tengwar · Number 49

    Elves were ambidextrous :. left had no "sinister" connexions (rather the reverse) since facing West (usual) left pointed away from Morgoth, and facing North it pointed to Aman.

    i Eldar miner attaformor potai hyarmen lane sinister simaryasse: lasir an ke mo querne immo numenna (ve ... ) i hyarma tentane ollo Morikotto, ar formenna tentane Amanna.


    June 2007

    Line 1: nar (possibly emended to niir) > > na > > naner. attaformor was preceded by at» ata » tatafor (all unfinished) .

    Line 2: tanen >> ta >> etta >> potai. simasse >> simaryasse. Line 3: lasi >> la >> lasir. pan nanquerne >> an numenquerna >> an ke mo

    querne immo numenna. The " . . . " after ve appears in the manuscript. Line 4: tente >> tentane, here and in line 5· Moringotto >> Morikotto.

    AS2 [ • • • ]6 ataformor hyarmen aune "sinister" simaryassen. an ke mo quernes immo numenna i hyarma tentane ollo Melcor ar formenna Amanna.


    Line 3: quernesse >> quernes. AS3

    mahtane yuyo ma vela

    i-Eldar "ataformaite" etta hyarmen lane ulca hya umara simaryassen usir, an ke mo querne kanwarya Numenna ( ve senwa) i hyarma tentane Melkorello, ar formenna tentane Amanna.

    (naner ataformaite ve firimor quetir)


    Line 1: "attaformaite" >> "ataformaite': Line 2: potai was added above etta as an alternative. khe >> hela >> hya.

  • June 2007 Vinyar Tengwar · Number 49 Page 7

    Line 3: lasir >> usir. The n in kanwarya was apparently emended or struck out; see the discussion in the analysis below.

    Line 4: Morikottollo » Melkorello.

    Eldar ataformaiti; epetai hyarmen u tena ulca hya umara s{maryassen: usir, an ke mo querne kendele numenna (ve senya) ihyarma tentane Melcorello, ar formenna tentane Amanna.

    Elves are/were ambidextrous; consequently lefthand-direction is/was not to them evil or {sinister} {for if one turned face}

    Elves are/were ambidexters


    Line 1: This was first typed as Eldar nar ataformaite, after which nar was struck out and ataformaite >> ataformaiti.

    Lines 2 & 3 (English translation): Deleted words or phrases in the texts are enclosed in curly brackets, as " {sinister}", etc.


    Eldar ataformaiti; epetai i hyarma u tena ulca hya umara s{maryassen, an ke mo quere kendele (ve senya) numenna tentane Melcorello


    Line 3: (ve senya) i hyarma numenna >> (ve senya) numenna.


    Eldar ataformaiti; epetai i hyarma u tena ulca simaryassen. usir, an ke mo quere kendele numenna ve senya i hyarma tentane Melcorello, ar ke formenna tentane Amanna.

    The Elves are/were ambidexters; consequently the left-hand is/was not to them evil in their imagination. On the contrary-for if one turns the face westwards as usual the left-hand pointed away from Melkor

  • Page 8 Vinyar Tengwar · Number 49

    Eldar ataformaiti; epetai i hyarma u ten ulca simaryassen. usie, an ke mo querne kendele numenna, ve senya, i hyarma tentane Melcorello, ar ke mo formenna tentanes Amanna.

    epetai : epe-ta-i 'following which (fact) '

    The Elves were ambidexters;

    June 2007

    consequently the left hand was not to them evil in their imaginations. On the contrary. For if one turned the face westwards as was usual, the left hand pointed away from Melkor (in the North) , and if northwards, it pointed towards Aman (the Blessed Land) .


    Line 2: u tena >> u ten. Line 3= usir » usie (emendation in ink) . Line s : tentane >> tentanes (emendation in ink) .

    Analysis of Forms

    Note: Bold headwords are for the most part from AS 7, with earlier forms discussed under their later counterparts. In those instances where a form appearing in an earlier version has no equivalent in AS 7 (for example, nt'iner 'were' in AS 1, or hya 'or' in AS 3-5) , the headword is taken from the earlier version. All words cited are Quenya unless otherwise noted.

    Line 1 :

    Eldar 'the Elves': The definite article i 'the' is used before Eldar in AS 1 (i Eldar) and AS 3 (i-Eldar) but is absent in AS 4-7 (Eldar is nonetheless translated as 'the Elves' in the English glosses accompanying AS 6 and 7). Tolkien's decision to omit the article in this instance might be explained by a note (apparently dating to the early 1950s) describing the distinction made in Eldarin between the definite or group-plural and the indefinite or partitive plural; this conveniently uses the word Eldar as an example: "Definite were plurals referring to whole classes, to things naturally or habitually considered in plurality [as English heavens = 'the sky', the sands = 'all the sand in a given locality: etc.], and in the syntax of many languages a plural with a definite article, meaning all the members of a group previously mentioned, or in mind. Thus in Q. Eldar (not with article!) = Elves, The Elves, All Elves; i Eldar = (all) the Elves previously named (and in some cases distinguished from other creatures); but Eldali, Elves, some Elves. With Eldali the definite article is seldom used."

  • June 2007 Vinyar Tengwar · Number 49 Page 9

    naner 'were': In AS 1 Tolkien first rejected nar (present plural, apparently emended to niir) and na (perhaps unfinished) before settling on naner (past tense plural). The copula is omitted in AS 3, i-Eldar "ataformaite': but it appears in the second alternative ending to the first line of this version, nciner ataformaite ve firimor quetir. The copula was also used in line 1 of AS 4 as first typed, Eldar nar ataformaite, but this was emended to Eldar ataformaiti, and this form of the phrase was retained unchanged in AS 5-7 (the omitted copula is glossed as 'are/were' in AS 4 and 6 , 'were' in AS 7). The grammatical rules for omission of the copula in Quenya are discussed in a note to an essay on comparison dating to c. 1966 or later (see VT 47:30 n.44). This note cites .Yna 'to be, exist', and states that "As a copula 'be, is' is not usually expressed in Quenya where the meaning is clear: se. in such expressions as 'A is good' where the adjective (contrary to the usual order in Quenya of a qualifying adjective) follows: the normal Quenya for this is A mara. But when the subject is not expressed, as usually in the impersonal 'neuter: e.g. 'it is good' = that is good, very well, na is used: so mara na; also when it is postponed as in Galadriel's Lament, Si vanwa na, Romello vanwa, Valimar:'7

    For a fuller overview of Tolkien's late writings on the conjugation of na 'to be', see the appendix at the end of the analysis.

    ataformaiti 'ambidexters': English ambidexter and ambidextrous are from Latin ambidexter, lit. 'right-handed on both sides' (ambi- 'on both sides' + dexter 'right-handed'), and the Quenya forms closely follow this semantic model.

    The prefix ata- in ataformor (AS 2) and ataformaite/-i (AS 3-7) appears in the appendix on Eldarin numerals from The Rivers and Beacon-hills of Gondor, which cites an adverbial or prefixal element at(a) 'double, bi-, di-' derived from AT, the most primitive form of the stem for 'twd (VT 42:26-7, author's notes 1 and 4). In reduplicated form Atat this stem was the source of Q. atta 'two' (ibid.), which appears in attaformor in AS 1 and attaformaite (>> ataformaite) in AS 3.8 Prefixed tata in the unfinished form tatafor (AS 1) is a variant word for 'two'; compare the C.E. stem TATA 'two' cited in the numerical appendix to Rivers (VT42:24), and Tata 'Two: name of the primeval Elf-father of the Noldor in the Cuivienyarna (XI:J8o, 421-23).

    The element forma in attaformor (AS 1) and ataformor (AS 2) must mean 'right-handed one: evidently a personalized form of forma 'right hand' (VT 47:6). The ending -o could be added to both adjectives and nouns to make personalized or agental forms, e.g., Ovanimo 'monster (creature of Melko)' < vanima 'fair' (V:351), and Q. tolbo 'big toe: described as "an 'agental' form" of C.E. tolba 'a protuberance, esp. one devised for a purpose: a knob, or rounded tool-handle' (VT 47:10-n). Alternatively, forma may have been derived directly from the base PHOR- 'right-hand' + the indefinite personal pronoun mo 'somebody, one' (VT 42:34 n.3). Sg. ataformaite, pi. ataformaiti (AS 3-7) end in formaite 'righthanded, dexterous: given in the Etymologies s.v. PHOR- 'right-hand' (V:382).9

  • Page 10 Vinyar Tengwar · Number 49 June 2007

    Alternative endings of line 1 (AS 3).

    When writing AS 3, Tolkien became aware of a semantic difficulty in the Quenya adjective ataformaite 'ambidextrous': like the English/Latin word after which it was modeled, this defines ambidexterity from the viewpoint of a predominantly right-handed culture, i.e., describing the Eldar as ataformaite, lit. *'doubly right-handed: implies that their right hand was normally the more skilful. Tolkien attempted to resolve this difficulty by composing two alternative endings to line 1:

    mahtane ytlyo ma vela-This phrase was written directly above ataformaite in AS 3 and attempts to circumvent the right-handed bias of the original term by offering a neutral paraphrase, apparently meaning * 'used both hands alike:

    HFN §2 cites mahta- 'handle, wield, manage, deal with: a verbal derivative of C.E. ma3a 'hand' (VT 47:6). mahtane is clearly the past tense of this verb, singular despite the presence of a plural subject, i-Eldar. This disparity cannot simply be dismissed as a slip, as other late examples of a plural subject with singular verb occur, e.g., 1-oromandi tanna lende * 'the mountaindwellers went thither', in version N2 of Nieninqe dating to 1955 (PE16:96-7).

    In yuyo ma * 'both hands', ma 'hand' (VT 47:6) is also in the singular, the modifier yuyo 'both' (V:400) evidently being sufficient to express its duality. Compare yuyo 'two' in the Early Qenya Grammar of 1923, said to be used with a noun in the singular, e.g., i·yuyo elda * 'the two elves' (PE14:5o ); elen atta 'two stars' in the wedding sentence draft on the same page as AS 3 exhibits similar syntax, atta 'two' being used with sg. elen 'star'.

    Although the final word vela is identical in form to vela 'see' in the 1929 '�rctic" sentence (Letters from Father Christmas, pp. 46-7), 'see' is clearly not the meaning intended here. vela in AS 3 is perhaps derived from ve 'as, like' (R:66), which is cited as v� < ..fwe (wee?) in etymological notes dated 1957.10 The ending -la is probably the same adjectival suffix seen in Q. faila 'fairminded, just, generous: lit. 'having a good fta, or a dominant foa' < ..Jphaya 'spirit' (XII:352). So vela might mean *'alike, having a likeness or similarity'.

    naner ataformaite ve firimor quetir-The second alternative phrase, placed in parentheses below AS 3, means *'were ambidextrous as mortals say: explaining ataformaite as an expression used in Quenya as spoken by Mortal Men, or as a Quenya translation of an unspecified Mannish word (the quotes around "ataformaite" in the main text of AS 3 thus serve to mark it as a citation of a peculiarly Mannish term). In Tolkien's mythology, as today, Men are predominantly right-handed-for example, HFN notes that the gesture made by Halbarad in The Passing of the Grey Company (LR:774) consisted of his right hand held up palm outwards to indicate that no weapon was held (VT47:9, 13 n.9); similarly, the Argonath held up their left hands in a Mannish gesture of prohibition that was considered hostile, because it left the right hand free to display a weapon, in this case an axe (VT 47:10 ).

  • June 2007 Vinyar Tengwar · Number 49 Page 11

    Both the main text of AS 3 and the second alternative phrase use the singular form ataformaite, though this refers to pl. i-Eldar; in Quenya, adjectives normally agree in number with the noun they modify. The fact that sg. ataformaite is given twice makes it less easy to dismiss as a mere slip, so perhaps this is another instance of Tolkien's occasional late experimentation with forgoing adjective-noun number agreement. For example, in the two texts of the latest version of "The Last Ark" (dating to the last decade of Tolkien's life), the first has i neka fairi 'the pale phantoms' (with sg. neka 'vague, faint, dim to see' + pl. Jairi 'phantoms'), while the second has i fairi neke, in which both noun and adjective are plural (MC:221-23). Tolkien also first typed ataformaite in AS 4, but emended it to ataformaiti, and this plural form appears in all subsequent versions.

    The name F£rimor 'mortals' first appears in the Quenta Silmarillion of c. 1937 {V:245, footnote); it is a personalized form of the adj . firima 'mortal' < PHIR- {V:381). In Quendi and Eldar ( 1959-60) Tolkien uses F£rimar 'those apt to die' instead (XI:387), but in the earliest of the Quenya translations of the Gloria in Excelsis Deo, dating to the mid-196os (see VT44:31), the original form reappears in the allative pl. j{rimonnar 'to mortals' (VT 44:35). The use offtrimor again in AS 3 (c. 1969) shows that this reversion to the form in -mo rather than -ma was not ephemeral.

    quetir is an aorist plural form; the sg. quete is also attested, e.g. , in the phrase 6renya quete nin 'my heart tells me: lit. *'my heart speaks/ says to me' (VT 41: 11, 15 n.4). The aorist was used in Quenya to make general statements with no specific temporal reference, e.g., i karir quettar 6mainen 'those who form words with voices: a gloss of Quendi ( 'speakers') used by Noldorin Loremasters cited in Quendi and Eldar (XI:391), with aorist pl. karir-the aorist singular of this verb appears in the phrase ava kare! 'Don't do it!' in the same essay (XI:371).

    Tolkien's concern about the suitability of ataformaite was only temporary, for there is no evidence of it in the subsequent versions AS 4-7, in which Tolkien uses ataformaiti throughout without quotation marks or circumlocutions.

    Line 2:

    epetai 'consequently': In AS 1 Tolkien first translated 'therefore' in the English text {indicated by the symbol ":. ") as tanen, apparently an instrumental form. A bundle of three pages of late notes on demonstratives (which will be referred to as "DN"), written on A&U waste paper from 1968, gives tanen 'in that way' (with a short vowel) in a long list of derivatives made from ta (adj . tanii) 'that'; other forms include, inter alia, tii 'then' ; to, talo 'thence'; tar, tara 'thither'; taite 'of that sort'; tama 'that matter'; tiis, tasse 'there'; tanome 'in the place (referred to)'; talume 'at this time'= 'at the time we are thinking of or speaking of' (in contrast to silume 'at this time', "which

  • Page 12 Vinyar Tengwar · Number 49 --------'-·

    June 2007

    only referred to the present of the time of speech"); and ta 'so, like that, also; as in ta Yrfcira 'so good'. For corresponding forms in DN derived from the stem si- 'this (by me): see below s.v. usie in line 3·

    tanen was replaced by ta, which (if not simply an unfinished form) can perhaps be equated with ta 'so, like that, also' in DN. ta was in turn replaced by etta, lit. *'out of that: Other examples of et 'out' with suffixed pronouns appear on the verso of the manuscript of Ataremma III and IV and associated texts, including 1 pl. excl. etemme, 1 pl. incl. etengwe, 2 sg. etel(ye), and 2 pl. etelle (VT 43:36 n.1) . Finally, etta in AS 1 was replaced by potai. AS 2 lacks a Quenya form for 'therefore', while AS 3 reverts to etta, with potai added above as an alternative.

    Both potai 'therefore' and epetai 'consequently' (the latter used in AS 4-7) consist of a preposition meaning 'after (in time)' + a pronominal form tai. The etymological note typed below AS 7 analyzes epetai as epe-ta-i 'following which (fact): In Tolkien's late writings, epe is glossed as both 'before, in all relations but time' and 'after, of time;11 and this variation in meaning, dependent on whether place or time was referred to, was due to a visual metaphor by which the Elves imagined their progression through time. This is succinctly described in a text probably dating to the mid-1950s, which notes: "The Eldar regarded all that was past as behind them, their faces being towards the future. With reference to Time therefore words with a basic sense 'behind, at the back' = before; and those originally meaning 'in front, ahead' = after:' Thus epe 'before' (of place) is used as 'after' when referring to time in such forms as epetai 'consequently; and epesse 'after-name; a nickname acquired later in life (UT:266). Similarly, notes on prepositional stems placed after the manuscript of AS 1-3 give opo, po 'before, in front of' (also pona, ompa 'forward; evidently allative forms), used as 'after' (of time) in potai 'therefore:12

    The pronominal form tai in potai and epetai can probably be identified with tai 'what' attested in the sentence alasaila na za kare tai mo nave (or navilwe) mara 'it is unwise not to do what one judges (or we judge) good' (VT 42:34). DN also mentions tai 'that which, what', though this was emended to ita; a separate note in DN explains, "note relative i preceded ta: ita that which':13 In the analytical form epe-ta-i 'following which (fact) ', tai corresponds to 'which (fact)', with ta 'that' expressing 'that fact previously mentioned; followed by relative i 'which'. DN also gives forms of this word without the relative element: epeta, epta 'following that, thereupon, thence, whereupon'. With the enclitic relative i 'which' in tai, compare the enclitic conjunction i 'that' in nai 'be it that' (R:68) , and mennai 'until' (lit. *'toward the place that') from the Koivieneni sentence of the early 1940s (VT14:13) .

    i hyarma 'the left hand': AS 1-4 have hyarmen, glossed as 'left' in AS 1 and 'lefthand-direction' in AS 4, the latter providing the literal meaning of the word's constituent elements. The Etymologies gives hyarmen 'south' s.v. KHYAR- 'left hand; and the suffix -men 'direction' is from ...fmen 'move, pro-

  • June 2007 Vinyar Tengwar · Number 49 Page 13

    ceed (in a direction intended by a person)' (VT 41:6). AS 5-7 have hyarma 'left-hand' (VT47:6), in which the final element is ma 'hand' (ibid.).

    u 'was not': In AS 1, Tolkien did not render the English phrase 'left had no "sinister" connexions' literally; instead, this is expressed in Quenya as *'left was not sinister in their mind' : "hyarmen lane sinister simaryasse': This same locution, 'was not . . . in their mind(s)', was used in all subsequent versions, though Tolkien hesitated over the Quenya form meaning 'was not:

    AS 1 and 3 have lane 'was not: This form also appears in an earlier version of Tolkien's text on negation, a portion of which was cited by Bill Welden in VT 42:33-4 (the earlier draft was typed on the back of pages from a script of the BBC radio adaptation of The Hobbit, which aired in Sept.-Nov. 1968). In the draft text, after stating that u is to be replaced by V ala as a negative element, Tolkien gives the following conjugation: ''As a quasi-verb its form is to be la. Aorist [lam in » ]lanye (I do not, am not); present *liijii > laia; past lane; perfect alaie; future lauva. The imperative ala, alii = don't! The simple form la = no, not (it isn't, it doesn't):' Tolkien subsequently wrote against this in the margin: "Abandon conjugation of la except when verb is not expressed"; and so in the later version (in a passage also cited by Welden) Tolkien writes: "This stem should not form a negative verb or take pronominal affixes, unless the verb is not expressed . . . the la does not express difference of tenses, normally unnecessary: the tense of la plus pronominal affix is always that of the previous verb, now negatived" (VT 42:33).

    AS 2 has instead aune, which is also attested as a past tense of the verb ava- 'refuse, forbid' (from the base ABA 'refuse (an order, request, petition); prohibit, discountenance another's proposed or likely action') in the later version of the essay on negation cited in the discussion of lane above. Marginal notes added to this later text (which was typed on A&U waste paper from 1968) include several versions of the conjugation of ava-, one of which reads "avan, iivan (iivean), avuvan > auvan, avanen (aunen), aviivien': i .e . , the 1 sg. aorist, present, future, past, and perfect forms. In another version of this paradigm, pres. iivean and past avanen are marked with "t': Tolkien's usual notation for poetic forms. The earlier essay Quendi and Eldar ( 1959-60) also cites ava- (weak pa.t. avane) as a derivative of a primitive negative element or exclamation *BA 'no!: meaning 'to refuse, to forbid' and expressing "concern or will" rather than denial of facts (XI:370). In AS 2, however, aune clearly serves as a simple negative 'was not: probably a transient reimagining or expansion in sense of ava-.

    AS 4-7 simply have the negative particle u, glossed as 'is/was not' in AS 4 and 6, and 'was not' in AS 7· In these texts u apparently serves as a "quasiverb': similar to la 'no, not (it isn't, it doesn't): as described in the discussion of lane above. It is noteworthy that even at this late date, we still see Tolkien hesitating between three possible negative stems-la, *BA, and u-while composing a simple negative statement in Quenya, once again exemplifying Welden's observation that "the Elvish languages were continually in flux as

  • Page 14 Vinyar Tengwar · Number 49 June 2007

    Tolkien tried one approach and then another to solving the dozens of problems they presented . . . . So the question of whether a word or grammatical construct is 'proper Quenya' turns out to become, paradoxically, more uncertain the more we learn about how Tolkien worked" (VT 42:34).

    ten 'to them': This phrase is absent in AS 1-3. AS 4-7 have tena 'to them: which in AS 7 was emended to ten; both are dative forms of the 3 pl. pronoun te (cf. laita te 'praise them', LR:932).l4 Dative pronouns in -n are well attested in Tolkien's late writings, e.g. , 1 sg. nin 'to me' in 6renya quete nin 'my heart tells me' (VT 41:11, 15 n.4), and 1 pl. excl. men 'to us' in Alye anta men 'give us' in At. II-IV, (VT 43:9-11). Yet dative pronouns in -na also occur in the late material; e.g. , an essay on the future tense (written on A&U waste paper from 1968) gives the sentence hrive uva vena 'winter is drawing near (to us)' (the independent verb uva, cognate with the future tense suffix -uva, is said to mean 'impend, be imminent', nearly always in a bad sense: 'threaten (to come)'). Another example appears in a late typescript text on "Homophonic stems" (A&U waste paper dated 1968), which notes that Q. anta-, the usual word for 'give; was also often used with an "ironic tone" to refer to missiles, so that the sentence antanen hatal sena 'I cast a spear at him' might also mean 'I gave him a spear (as a present):15 This variation between pronominal dative -n and -na is not surprising; as Tolkien wrote in a late isolated note, "The 'dative' -n was of course in origin a reduction of -nii 'to: " This note also states that adverbial -nna (i.e. , the allative case ending) was of the same origin, with fortified n, confirming a long-standing supposition among Tolkien scholars as to why the Plotz declensions (PE10:27, VT1q) list dative forms in parentheses below the allatives.

    ulca 'evil' : This word, occurring in AS 3-7 (see below s.v. umara), dates back to the Qenya Lexicon, which lists ulca 'bad, wicked, wrong' under the root ULU(2). It is also attested in the compound henulka 'evileyed', from a longer version of Treebeard's ore-curse in Quenya found in an early draft of Many Partings ( IX:68, 72 n.12), and the ablative form ulcallo 'from evil' is used in Ataremma I and Ila (VT43:8, 10). An etymological note from c. 1957-59 gives Q. olea as a derivative of a stem aka- 'wicked, evil; beneath which was added in pencil, "? uk: ukla > Q. ulca" ; the queried stem uk in this note is perhaps the same as later UK 'nasty; a base cited (without derivatives) in the text Variation DIL in Common Eldarin, c. 1968 (VT48:32 n.15).

    hya 'or': The conjunction hya 'or' only appears in AS 3-5, in the phrase ulca hya umara 'evil or sinister' (see below s.v. umara). In AS 3 Tolkien first wrote khe; this was replaced by hela, which in turn was replaced by hya. Glossary 1 lists hyd 'or' with no further information. However, a probable etymology for hya is suggested by a late note (on A&U waste paper, probably from 1968 or later), which cites a stem khy- 'other: with derivatives khy� 'other person' (Q. hye), khyli 'other thing' (Q. hya), and adj. khyana (Q. hyana) corresponding to khyli. The form hye was "also used as a 3rd

  • June 2007 Vinyar Tengwar · Number 49 Page 15

    person entering account [who is] not subject of the original verb'; which Tolkien illustrates with a diagram:

    A struck B, and B fled. he struck him and he fled se - hye hye

    It seems likely then that hy& 'or' in AS 3-5 is cognate with khy& 'other thing' (Q. hya) in this late note, comparable to the connection between the words for 'or' and 'other' in the Qenya Lexicon, which lists var 'or' and vara 'other: joined by a brace, under the root VARA. The form khe first written in AS 3 is certainly etymological, indicating the base underlying subsequent Q. hela, since initial kh- in Common Eldarin became h- in Quenya. A text on reflexives dating to c. 1965 gives a base .YkhJ, whence Q. he, "used for a 3rd person of second reference which was not the subject of a 3rd person sentence, or was not the same as the 3rd person of first reference in a sentence with 1 or 2 person subject': The latter use is illustrated by the sentence melinyes (or melin se) apa la he (or lanye he) ' I love him but not him (the other, etc.): The gloss of he as 'him (the other, etc.)' suggests that .Ykh� probably meant 'other (person)' and was a variant conception of khy� 'other person'.l6 The ending -la in hela might be the adjectival suffix -la (see the discussion of vela above, s.v. mahtane yuyo mti vela); another possibility is la 'beyond', which according to a late essay was also used as 'than' in expressions of comparison (VT 42:32), and is identified in other late writings as the final element -la in pella 'beyond' in Galadriel's Lament. So perhaps hela 'or' literally meant *'other than:

    umara 'sinister' : AS 1 and 2 state that the left is not 'sinister', with Tolkien using the English word sinister17 as a placeholder in both Quenya texts pending the invention of an Elvish equivalent. The Quenya form umara 'sinister' finally appears in AS 3, and in AS 3-5 the description of the left is expanded to not 'evil or sinister: ulca hya umara. In AS 6 and 7, the words hya umara 'or sinister' are omitted, and the left hand is only said to be not ulca 'evil:

    Glossary 1 lists umara 'bad, ill-used, evil, sinister', which is transparently the negative prefix u- + mtira 'good' (VT 42:33-4). The Etymologies lists mtira (*magra) 'useful, fit, good (of things)' under the base MAG- 'use, handle', while HFN has instead C.E. MAGA 'good', said to be "without moral reference, except by implication: se. it was not the opposite of 'evil, wicked' but of 'bad (damaged, imperfect, unfit, useless): and the adjectival stem derived, *magra, meant 'good for a purpose or function, as required or desired, useful, proper, fit' " (HFN VT 47:6). Both MAG- in the Etymologies and C. E. MAGA in HFN are said to be related to mti 'hand; so umara, like Eng. sinister, has an association with hands (though in the Quenya form this is purely etymological, and does not specifically allude to the left hand). In umara the prefix u- is not simply negative but pejorative, for while the glosses 'bad,

  • Page 16 Vinyar Tengwar · Number 49 June 2007

    ill-used' could be interpreted as merely negative ('not fit, not used well'), the moralistic nature of 'evil, sinister' is unambiguous. Compare the Etymologies, which notes that the Q. prefix u 'not, un-, in-' ( < ugu, or gu) was "usually with bad sense", e.g., vanimor 'fair folk' = (men and) elves, uvanimor 'monsters' {V:396). The moral sense of u- is also seen in ucaremmar 'our trespasses' in Ataremma V-VI; ucar( e) 'trespass' obviously has the literal meaning 'evil deed' (VT43=19).

    simaryassen 'in their imaginations': The form first written in AS 1 was s{masse, immediately struck out and replaced with s{maryasse. AS 2-7 all have s{maryassen, consisting of s{ma 'imagination' + 3 pl. possessive -rya 'their' + locative pl. -ssen.

    Glossary 1 lists "s{ma mind (related to ista}; isima"; AS 6-7 translate s{ma as 'imagination'. The essay Variation DIL in Common Eldarin (c. 1968) notes that the verb ista- 'to know' was derived from the base IS 'know: while its older past tense sinte 'knew' was "certainly irregular'; being derived instead from a reversed form of the base {VT 48:25). s{ma 'mind, imagination' must also derive from this reversed form, *SI-. A later past tense isinte is also cited in VDL, evidently a regularized form reintroducing unreversed IS, and this same process perhaps accounts for the untranslated form isima in the glossary entry, probably an alternative form of s{ma derived from IS rather than *SI-.18

    The use of -rya as 3 pl. possessive 'their' appears here for the first time in a published text. The only instances of -rya published in Tolkien's lifetime were both feminine singular, maryat 'her hands' and 6maryo 'of her voice' in Galadriel's Lament. The masculine singular sense is attested in Quendi and Eldar, which cites koarya Olwe 'the house of him, Olwe' = 'Olwe's house' {XI:369). A chart giving the aorist conjugation of car- ('do, make') with singular, plural, and dual pronominal inflections and corresponding possessive suffixes, is found in the brown folder in which the manuscript of AS 1-3 was placed, written on the back of another copy of the same A&U notice of 12 Jan. 1968 as the manuscript. This provides a useful overview of the subject inflections and possessive pronoun suffixes as they were envisioned at a point closely contemporary with the writing of the Ambidexters Sentence:

    [Singular] [Plural] [Dual] carin I -nye -nya a r carilme -lma a r carimme -mm a caril I -lye -lya b lcarilwe -lwa b lcaringwe -ngwa caritye -tya carilde -lda cariste19 -sta caris -rya carilte (-lta) [tcariste] [ -sta] care -ya carir -rya carit -twa

    Here, beside the 3rd person forms ending in a pronominal suffix (sg. caris, pl. carilte, du. tcariste), there are impersonal forms indicating only number (sg. care, pl. carir, du. carit}. The possessive suffix -rya corresponds to both

  • June 2007 Vinyar Tengwar · Number 49 Page 17

    3 sg. caris and impersonal pl. carir, while impersonal sg. care has possessive -ya. The development and use of -ya and sg. and pl. -rya is described in a text written a few years earlier, entitled "Notes on Verbal Inflexion in Quenya'; probably dating to the mid-196os.20 According to this text, the "pronominal adjectival affixes" of the 3rd person employed the adjectival element -jii, which was originally used for all numbers. In Old Quenya (OQ), more distinctive forms incorporating the pronouns s(e), t(e) and numerical infixes were established as well, though the simple form -ya "remained in Quenya the 3 pers. sg. adjectival form in cases where the later elaborated forms were awkward: e.g. especially attached to old nouns with consonantal stems such as tiil foot, kas head, ner man, sir river, makil sword, etc:' The discussion concludes:

    The 3rd sg. remained aberrant and gave later trouble. The full OQ forms -sjii > sya became zya and in Q. -rya. This still survived in Q. as a 'correct' form, and was used in writing, especially formal or poetic. But -rya now suggested plurality, as if ya had been added to -r plural. In colloquial Q. it thus became used for the plural replacing the 'archaic' -ntya, and in the sg. the r was dropped. (The continued existence of such forms as talya 'his foot' assisted this. ) That these forms, such as kambeya 'his hand; yulmaya 'his cup; were recent is shown by their forms: older eya, aya would have become -ea.

    If Tolkien intended this account to be compatible with examples of Quenya already published in The Lord of the Rings, then use of sg. -rya instead of -ya in maryat and 6maryo in Galadriel's Lament constitutes "formal or poetic" language. Also noteworthy here is the reference to "archaic" -ntya. A chart of Old Quenya and Quenya verbal inflections in this same text (with the aorist of Vkar- 'do, make' again used as an example) lists the 3 pl. forms as OQ karinte, t-lte, with adj. suffixes -(i)nta, (i)ntya and -(i)lta, (i)ltya (the forms with i are used after a consonant}; and Q. karinte, with adj . -(i)ntya I -rya. In Tolkien's post-Lord of the Rings writillgs there is an ongoing hesitation between -nte and -lte a·s the 3 pl. inflect.ion, with both forms sometimes existing side by side in the same paradigm. This vacillation extends into the latest period; for example, beside carilte in the aorist conjugation from c. 1968 given above, the narrative Cirion and Earl from the same period (see XI1:293) has tiruvantes 'they will guard it' in Cirion's oath.

    Line 3:

    usie 'on the contrary': Line 3 of AS 1 originally began with an uncompleted phrase, lasi pan nanquerne, probably meaning * 'not so, since turned back: Here lasi * 'not so', more loosely rendered as 'rather the reverse' in the English translation, evidently consists of la 'no, not' (VT 42:33) + the stem si- 'this (by me); lit. * 'not this: The forms la and lasir were added above pan

  • Page 18 Vinyar Tengwar · Number 49 June 2007

    nanquerne (which phrase was struck out), and both lasi and la were then struck out simultaneously with a single diagonal stroke, leaving just lasir.

    e The surviving form apparently contains sir, sira 'hither' (sidd), one of several adverbs derived from the stem si- 'this (by me)' listed in DN (see above s.v. epetai in line 2); other forms include Q. s{ 'now'; sie 'thus'; sinen 'by this means, so'; silo (sio) 'hence'; site 'of this sort'; sfs, sisse 'here'; slnome 'in this place, here'; sllume (sl-lume) 'at this time, now'; and adj. sina < slna.21 The forms sir, sira are allative, literally meaning * 'to( wards) this'; the ending -dJ is described in Quendi and Eldar as "the ending -d (prehistoric -da) indicating motion to or towards a point': seen also in the adverb oar * 'away' (XI:366); the Etymologies also cites tar (*tad) 'thither' and mir 'to the inside, into: In lasir, the reference is not to physical motion but rather to direction of thought: * 'not to this way of thinking: It is possible that "la lasir" written above pan nanquerne does not indicate two successive forms but rather a single phrase, *'no, not so: with emphatic repetition of the element la perhaps indicating that reversal rather than mere negation was intended.

    AS 3 also had lasir as first written, emended to usir, in which negative la- is replaced by u-. usir also appears in AS 4, 6 and 7, glossed in the latter two texts as 'on the contrary: In AS 7 usir was subsequently emended in ink to usie, in which the final element is sie 'thus: given in the list of derivatives of si- in DN. sie 'thus' also appears earlier as the final element in nasie 'amen, may it be so' in Ataremma V and VI (VT 43:12, 24). No form corresponding to 'rather the reverse, on the contrary' appears in AS 2 and 5·

    an 'for': In the rejected phrase pan nanquerne in AS 1, pan appears to correspond to 'since' in the English translation. Eng. since derives from OE. sippan, sfp pam 'after that: and on this basis it is possible that Q. pan 'since' could be a form of apa, pa, pa 'after: of time (VT 44:36); cf. the phrase yeni pa yeni *'years after years' in a fragment associated with Tolkien's Quenya translation of the Gloria in Excelsis Deo (ibid.), and the name Apan6nar 'the After-born' given to Men by Elves (XI:386). The derivation of pan 'since' < pa 'after' would parallel certain adverbs formed by addition of -n to a monoconsonantal stem ending in a vowel; examples from the 1950s include san 'so < sa 'that' (for this gloss, see below s.v. ke) and yan 'as' < the relative stem ya-, both appearing in Ataremma lib-IV (VT 43:10-u); and sin * 'thus' < si- 'this (by me): from the sentence Sin Quente Quendingoldo Elendilenna *'Thus spake Pengoloo to .t'Elfwine' that concludes the Dangweth PengololJ (XII :4o1). It is also possible that pan 'since' is derived instead from the preposition pJ 'touching, as regards, concerning' < --/ apa 'touch' (VT 44:26), with pan 'since' referring to 'touching' in a causal sense. It is perhaps significant that a list of prepositional stems on one of the narrow slips placed after AS 1-3 includes apa, pa 'on (above but touching): while apa, pa, pa 'after' is not mentioned.

    After pan nanquerne was struck out, Tolkien wrote an numenquerna * 'for turned westward'; numenquerna was in turn struck out and replaced by the words ke mo querne. The resulting phrase, an ke mo querne 'for if one

  • June 2007 Vinyar Tengwar · Number 49 Page 19

    turned; is used (with only minor variations) in all subsequent versions of the Ambidexters Sentence. Glossary 2 lists an 'furthermore, and so, - (for): An essay on comparison dating to c. 1966 or later (see VT 42:32 and VT 47:30 n.44) similarly gives an 'moreover, further(more), to proceed; derived from the "intrinsically 'comparative' " base .Y AMA, which is also the source of the intensive prefix in ankalima 'extremely bright, brightest: Tolkien explains that an "is very frequently used after a 'full stop; when an account or description is confirmed after a pause. So in Galadriel's Elvish lament, I 394: An si Tintalte: etc. This is translated by me 'for: since an is (as here) often in fact� used when the additional matter provides an explanation of or reason for what has already been said:'

    ke 'if': AS 1 and 3 have ke, while AS 2, 4, 5, and 7 have ke; AS 6 has both ke (line 3) and ke (line 5 ) . This variation is probably not significant, and in any event Glossary 2 cites k� 'if', allowing for both forms. These notes add: "ke usually [used] with aorist", which is followed by two unglossed (but readily interpretable) examples: ke mo qete ulca *'if one speaks evil; and ke tulis, tanome nauvan *'if he/she comes, I will be there' (for tanome 'in the place (referred to)', see above s.v. epetai in line 2). The second example also has an alternative ending, probably emphatic: ni nauva tanome *'I (too) will be there: Only the typescript versions AS 5 and 6 feature ke used with an aorist verb: ke mo quere 'if one turns' ; in the other versions pa.t. querne is used. Glossary 2 also lists a few related forms: kenai 'if it be that'; CQ kita-, kitan 'I suppose' (from keye, apparently an extended form of ke); and kenasit, kenasta (*kenasrta) 'if it be so, may be, perhaps:22 In this last group of forms, * kenaslta is transparently ke 'if' + na 'it is' (in the etymological form above, the acute accent probably indicates stress, not quantity) + sl-ta 'so' (cp. sie 'thus' s.v. usie and ta 'so, like that' s.v. epetai). The variants kenasit, kenasta apparently resulted from shifts in primitive stress. Tolkien writes in The Road Goes Ever On that in Quenya " [t]he main (high-toned) stress was originally on the first syllable of all words" (pg. 68): thus kenasit probably derives from original *kenasita (though this form is not recorded by Tolkien). Later the main stress moved forward to fall on the antepenult, if the penultimate syllable was short (ibid.); thus *kenasrta > kenasta.

    In the late essay on negation (c. 1968) cited in VT42:33-4, ke occurs as a particle indicating uncertainty, used in the sentence la karitas alasaila ke nauva 'not doing this may be/prove unwise: This particle was a very old concept, originating some 45 years earlier in the Early Qenya Grammar of 1923, in which ki 'may' (emended from ke) is a conditional/subjunctive particle expressing nearer possibility, as in hi·tule ki 'she may be coming, may come' (PE14:59). The conjunction ke 'if' in the Ambidexters Sentence, while obviously a variation of this concept, was probably not imagined as coexistent with ke as a particle 'may: A vocabulary riote written on A&U waste paper dated 1968 and placed in the same brown folder as the manuscript of AS 1-3 gives qui 'if' ( < kwi- 'suppose') and ke 'may be' as distinct forms. Similarly, in

  • Page 20 Vinyar Tengwar · Number 49 June 2007

    the EQG ki 'may' is distinct from mai 'if', as in mai ni·tuluva, tu·tuluval ki 'If I come, they will come' (ibid.).

    The late essay on negation also has a parenthetical note, " (On ke see notes on translation of 'can, may, etc:) :· This apparently refers to a page of notes in pencil (on A&U waste paper dated 1967) placed near the typescript in the boxfile, which states that 'may: in the sense 'have chance, opportunity or permission', was expressed by a base .Y ek 'it is open. Though the particle ke is not cited, various examples of Vek used as a verb are given, including eke nin kare sa 'I can do tilat: eke nin? 'please, may I?; and ekuva nin kare sa noa ' I "may" do that tomorrow, I have a chance of doing that [tomorrow] :23 It may be tilat ke 'if' was also conceived as a derivative of tilis same base.(

    mo 'one': This appears in AS 1-7 as the subject of the verb 'turned/turns' (see querne below). Glossary 2 lists mo 'anyone, someone' (VT 47:37 n.sB; see also endnote 4 of tile present article). The essay on negation cites the "indefinite personal pronoun" mo 'somebody, one: as in tai mo nave . . . mara 'what one judges . . . good' (VT 42:34).

    querne 'turned' : In AS 1 , Tolkien first wrote lasi pan nanquerne * 'not so, since turned back' (see above s.v. usie and an), in which nanquerne * 'turned back' apparently consists of the prefix nan- 'backwards' < NDAN- 'back' (V:375), a base also seen in nanwe (C.E. ndanme) 'ebb, lowtide' (VT48:26 n.2); and querne 'turned; past tense of quer- 'turn', a verbal stem familiar from the adjective or passive participle nuquerna 'reversed' (lit. * 'turned under') in the names of tengwar nos. 30 silme nuquerna 's reversed' and 32 are nuquerna, referring to inverted forms of silme (29) and are (31) (LR:n23). nanquerne might also be tile plural of an adjective or participle *nanquerna 'turned back', perhaps referring to i Eldar. The notion that facing westward meant 'turning back' suggests a Noldorin viewpoint, since the Noldor had come to Middle-earth from Eldamar in tile West. The phrase pan nanquerne was replaced by an numenquerna * 'for turned west: in which numenquerna is clearly an adjective/participle translating 'facing West' in the English text. This still might refer to pl. i Eldar, despite being singular (see the discussion above s.v. naner ataformaite ve f£rimor quetir in line 1); alternatively, numenquerna might be used substantively as singular 'one who is facing West: Finally, numenquerna was struck out and replaced by tile more analytical phrase an ke mo querne immo numenna *'for if one turned oneself westward:

    AS 2 has an ke mo quernes immo numenna, in which quernes was first written as quernesse. A page of notes on the conjugation of na 'is' from 1969 states that the original form of the 3 sg. inflection -s(e) was -sse (see the appendix below), which may be the ending present in quernesse. If so, this appears redundant, since tile pronoun mo 'one' already provides the subject of the verb, and Quenya pronominal inflections are typically used only when an overt subject is not present. The text on reflexives from c. 1965 cited above s.v. hya in line 2 mentions a 3 sg. reflexive inflection -sse derived from -se-s� (in which -se apparently indicates tile subject and -s� the object), e.g.,

  • June 2007 Vinyar Tengwar · Number 49 Page 21

    meli-se-s� > melisse 'he loves himself' (there was also a 3 pl. equivalent from te 'they': meli-te-t� > melitte 'they love themselves' ) . If this is the inflection present in AS 2, then quernesse is *'he turned himself: This would seem to introduce an additional redundancy, since besides the preceding subject pronoun mo 'one: quernesse is also followed by a reflexive object pronoun immo 'same one, self' (VT 47:37 n.58) ; however, it is possible that Tolkien emended quernesse to quernes before continuing on to write immo. The emended form quernes has the more typical short form -s of the 3 sg. inflection, as in caris in the late conjugation cited above s.v. s{maryassen in line 2 (also cf. eques 'said he/she' in Quendi and Eldar, Xl:415 n.29) . This might also be interpreted as the object suffix -s, as in melinyes 'I love him' (see above s.v. hya in line 2) . In either case the potential redundancies noted for quernesse remain, and it is perhaps significant that in all subsequent versions Tolkien uses only impersonal forms, pa.t. querne in AS 3, 4, and 7, and aorist quere in AS 5 and 6.

    immo *'oneself'-This only appears in AS 1 and 2, in which it serves as the direct object of querne 'turned' (AS 1) and quernes(se) *'he turned (himself) ' (AS 2). The general reflexive immo 'same one, self' appears in Glossary 2 along with several related forms,

    " presented in VT 47:37 n.58. The gloss

    'same one' gives the literal meaning of this compound: im- 'same' and mo 'one' (ibid.) .

    kendele 'the face' : In AS 3 Tolkien introduced the phrase * 'for if one turned his face westward: replacing the reflexive object immo 'oneself' of AS 1 and 2 with kanwarya *'his face'. The noun kanwa 'face' probably derives from the base KAT- 'shape' (V:362),24 with *katmii > Q. kanwa (for the development of *tm > Q. nw, see Carl F. Hostetter's "Five Late Quenya Volitive Inscriptions" in this issue, inscr. IV s.v. veryanwesto). Tolkien apparently devised this form on the etymological model of Lat. facies 'face: which originally meant 'form, shape' ( < facere 'make') . Eng. face is itself derived from this Latin word. 25

    AS 4-7 all have kendele 'face: with no possessive suffix. This clearly derives from kenda- 'watch, observe for some time (to gain information etc . ) : an intensive form of ·Jken 'see, perceive, note' (VT 41 :5) . Words for 'face' in the Indo-European languages often tra.ce back to roots meaning 'see, look: e.g., French visage, older vis, from Lat. vlsus 'sight'. The same holds true for many of the attested Elvish forms, e.g., Q. alma 'face, visage' < ALA (l) 'gaze' (QL); Gn. gwint 'face' < gwinta- 'see' (GL); and Q. yema 'face' in Valmaric document V6 (PE14:117), probably from the same root DYt(1) as 'yeta 'look at' and 'yesta, 'yendo 'glance, gaze' (QL) . The formation of kendele 'face' < kenda'watch, observe' parallels fiandele 'harping' < fianda- 'to harp' in the Etymologies s.v. NGAN-, NGANAD- 'play (on stringed instrument): The text Noldorin words for Language (the germ for Appendix D to Quendi and Eldar, c. 1959-60) notes that "Nouns made with the ending -le seem properly to have been universal and abstract; though naturally in colloquial usage they often became particular in reference" (VT39:16) ; the reference to colloquial

  • Page 22 June 2007 Vinyar Tengwar · Number 49 -------------�----� -----------------------

    usage would seem to account for kendele as 'face' rather than *'watching, observation:

    numenna 'westwards': This form, the allative of numen 'west' (LR: 1123) , i s also attested in V:47 and IX:310. I t appears in all seven versions, the only variation being the use of capitalized Numenna in AS 3.

    ve senya 'as usual': Tolkien was at first uncertain how to translate 'usual; and in AS 1 he simply wrote "(ve . . . ) '; with an ellipsis as place-holder for the undecided form. In AS 2, line 3 ends with numenna 'westward; the phrase 'as usual' being omitted entirely. Finally, in AS 3 Tolkien wrote ve senwa, and in AS 4-7 'as usual' is rendered as ve senya (Glossary 1 lists senya 'usual; with no further information) .

    The etymology of senwa, senya (which end in the common adjectival suffixes -wa, -ya) is not readily apparent. The element sen- in these forms might be the verbal stem sen- 'let loose, free, let go' seen also in apsene- 'remit, release, forgive' in Ataremma V and VI (VT4p8).26 If senwa, senya originally meant 'freed, unconstrained', this could naturally give rise to the sense 'normal, usual', referring to the "default" behavior or attitude of a person or thing. Phonologically, Q. sen- could also derive from *then- or *sten-. A stem *then- 'look at, observe' might be posited as an extension of THE- 'look (see or seem)' in the Etymologies27 (cp. Gn. the- 'see' in the GL); according to Carl Darling Buck's A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages (pg. 1359) , O.E. peaw 'usage, custom, habit' (whence peawe 'usual') may have originally meant 'observation', cognate with Lat. tueri 'to look at, observe, heed, protect'. (The OED states that peaw is of uncertain etymology, with no cognates recorded outside of West Germanic. ) Etymological notes from c. 1968 give ;/ten 'point' (with derivatives including tenna 'to the point' and tenta 'point to, point out'; see below s.v. tentane in line 4), and an s-prefixed variant *s-ten-28 might be the source of senwa, senya-cp. Homeric Greek oiKYf 'custom, usage, way; which according to Buck (pg. 1358) is cognate with Grk. &iKVVfAt 'point out' and Sanskrit dir;- 'point out' (substantive dir;- 'direction' ) .

    The adj. sanya 'regular, law-abiding, normal' < STAN- 'fix, decide' in the Etymologies is also intriguingly close in form and meaning to senya 'usual: Variation between a and e is attested in some Eldarin stems, e.g., am/em, amal/emel 'mother', cited in one of the Rough Notes to HFN (VT48: 19 n.16); apa/epe 'after; as in Apan6nar 'the After-born' and epesse 'after-name' (Xl:J86, UT:266) ; and malo 'friend; derived from MEL- 'love (as friend)' with "irregular vocalism" (V:372).

    Line 4:

    i hyarma 'the left hand': This appears in all versions. AS 4 has ihyarma with prefixed definite article; cp. ikilyanna 'into [the] chasm' ( IX:247) . i hyarma was struck out in AS 5, though this was merely because Tolkien mis-

  • June 2007 Vinyar Tengwar · Number 49 Page 23

    takenly typed it before numenna in line 3, then neglected to retype it in its proper place at the beginning of line 4·

    tentane 'pointed': In AS 1 the form first written was tente, both here and in line s; this was emended to tentane in both instances, apparently only after AS 1 had been completed. AS 2-7 all have tentane as first written.

    Glossary 1 has this entry: "tenta, tenante direct toward, be directed toward; tenta with object = go forth towards; tentane numenna pointed westward:' This shows that tenta could be used both transitively ('direct toward') and intransitively ('be directed toward') , and it is used intransitively in line 4, which states that 'the left hand pointed (i .e. , was directed) away from Melkor: In the statement "tenta with object = go forth towards", the word "object" is apparently intended in the general sense 'goal, thing aimed at' rather than in the grammatical sense 'direct object', since the meaning indicated is intransitive, 'go forth towards'.

    The glossary entry cites two past-tense forms, strong tenante with infixed nasal and weak tentane wiili suffixed -ne. Both types of past tense are attested for other derived verbs in -ta, e.g., strong keante, pa. t of ea ita 'lies' (VT 48:13, R:67) ; and weak ortane 'lifted up: pa.t. of orta- 'rise, raise' (R:67, V:379) . It is not uncommon for Quenya verbs to have more than one past tense, e.g., onta- 'beget, create', pa.t. 6ne or ontane (V:379) , and in at least one instance, the two past-tense forms are used to distinguish between transitive and intransitive senses: ulya- 'pour: intr. pa.t. ulle, tr. ulyane (V:396) . Since the weak pa.t. tentane is intransitive in all of its occurrences (Glossary 1 , and lines 4 and 5 of AS) , it seems possible that the strong pa.t. tenante might be transitive.

    The rejected pa.t. tente can be compared with Q. vinta- 'fade: pa.t. vinte, vintane in the Etymologies s.v. WIN-, WIND-; pa.t. vinte was also rejected, this verb being emended to vinda- 'fade: pa.t. vindane before the entire entry was struck out (VT 46:21) .

    The etymology of tenta appears in a late manuscript text that lists stems expressing various shades of 'go, come' (A&U waste paper, Jan. 1968) . The sense 'to, arrive (at), reach' is here said to be expressed by -Yten:

    -Yten-cf. tenna 'right up to a point' (of time/place) = 'go as far as: Pres. tena- ' is on point of arrival, is just coming to the end: Cf. tul. tenin is indefinite in time. 'When winter comes/arrives/is with us, it is cold: ya hrive tene, ringa na. 'Whenever I arrive at his house/ come to/get to, he is out: quiquie (or quie) tenin koaryanna I arse.29 � Chiefly in past tenne 'arrived, reached', which is usually used with locative not allative: tennen sis 'I arrive [ d] here: etenie 'has just arrived'; tenuva 'will arrive:

    Tolkien subsequently emended -Yten in this note to -Ymen; tenna and its gloss were struck out, and ten- was changed to men- in all the other derivatives:

  • Page 24 Vinyar Tengwar · Number 49 June 2007

    tena- >> mena-, tenin >> menin (at both occurrences), tene >> mene, tenne >> menne, tennen >> mennen, etenie >> emenie, and tenuva >> menuva. Perhaps in conjunction with these changes, Tolkien hastily jotted "ten = point; tenna to the point" near the beginning of this note, and further down the page (below a rejected entry for ;/wa) he wrote the forms tenta 'point to, - out, indicate; hententa 'spot with eye', and leptenta-hententa is probably lit. *'direct the eye toward (something) ' (hen 'eye'; V:364), while leptenta evidently means *'point to/indicate with the finger' (lep(e)- 'finger'; VT 47:10) . Similar glosses of ten- appear elsewhere in Tolkien's later writings. A list of prepositional stems written on one of the narrow slips of notes placed with AS 1-3 includes ten- 'towards: Another list of various stems, apparently dating to the late 1950s or early 196os, gives ";/ten- = end in sense of point aimed at (met merely = finality) . tenna to the point, until. t Q tenya, arrive (not

    E at speaker's[?] place). · pa.t. tenne': A group of etymological -n�tes from 19Sl

    gi�e�en-�'d.ifectiori, with derivative tenna 'to the object; up to, to (reach), as far as: Cp. tenn' Ambar-metta 'unto the ending of the world' (LR:967), and tennoio 'for ever' < tenna + oio 'an endless period' (UT:317 n-43) .

    Melcorello 'away from Melkor': In AS 1-2 , 'away from Morgoth/Melkor' is translated as a prepositional phrase: AS 1 has ollo Moringotto, emended to ollo Morikotto 'away from Morgoth'; and AS 2 has ollo Melcor 'away from Melkor'. The preposition ollo 'away from' obviously contains the ablative suffix -llo. The initial a- may simply be a prefixed sund6ma. Alternatively, one of the narrow slips of contemporary notes placed after the manuscript of AS 1-3 cites the stem awa 'away from', with variant forms au, o and va-, and ollo could also be the ablative inflection of the reduced form o 'away from'.

    Glossary 1 lists "la 'from; after inflexion''; cp. the Etymologies entry for the ablative element LO-, with derivatives Q. -ello, la (VT 45 :28) . A note written on the back of an A&U publication notice from 1969 describes the use of the independent form: "16 as independent word was used only with person; thus not Manwello but la Manwe, and usually in sense by agent': The phrase nahtana la Turin appears to the left of this, probably meaning *'slain by Turin' ( Q. nahtan 'I slay' occurs frequently in Tolkien's late writings, derived from ndak- 'hew; whence also nakin 'I hew, cut' ) . The idea that prepositional 16 was preferable to the inflection -llo when referring to a person was perhaps a factor in Tolkien's initial decision to use ollo before the names Moringotto, Morikotto, Melcor in AS 1 and 2-though he soon changed his mind, since AS 3 has Morikottollo >> Melkorello, and AS 4-7 all have Melcorello 'away from Melkor'.30

    Moringotto (AS 1) as the Quenya form of S. Morgoth 'the Black Foe' also occurs in the later Quenta Silmarillion (LQ), which Tolkien revised in the 1950s (X: 194) ; in the second phase of work on this text, Moringotto was replaced by Moriftgotho (X:294). Morikotto (AS 1 and 3) does not occur elsewhere. Morgoth first appears in the Tale of Tinuviel (1917), in which Beren addresses Melko as "most mighty Belcha Morgoth (for such be his names

  • June 2007 ----

    Vinyar Tengwar · Number 49 Page 25 ----'----=----------·------�--

    among the Gnomes)" (11 :44), and although this name retained its external form in Tolkien's later writings, there was much hesitation over the years concerning the etymology of the final element -goth (with concomitant uncertainty about the corresponding Quenya form) .31 The Etymologies entry for KOTH- 'strive, quarrel' (first written as KOT-) identifies the second element in Morgoth as N. coth 'enmity, enemy', adding "but this may also contain GOTH, *morn-3oth > morngoth" (VT45:23), referring to the base GOS-, GOTH- 'dread: The Quenya forms Moringotto, Morikotto in AS 1 and 3 show that Tolkien was still hesitating between these bases some thirty years later. ngotto (and iigotho in the later LQ form Moriiigotho) both point to the base *NGOTH -, evidently a form of GOTH- with strengthened initial consonant; ngotto (probably from *iigotthO) shows the development of C.E. tth > Q. tt also seen in netthi > nette 'sister' (VT 47:14 n.21) . Similarly, kotto could derive from either KOTH- (*kotthO) or KOT- (*kotto). Though KOT- was emended to KOTH- in the Etymologies, it may have nonetheless survived; it is apparently present in S. Ihuringud 'the Hidden Foe' (with -gud 'foe' < *-kat) , one of Turin's aliases in Ihe Wanderings of Hurin (XI:256) .

    Line s:

    ar 'and': This appears in all versions except AS 5 , which was abandoned at the end of line 4· Tolkien usually attributed Q. ar to a stem meaning 'beside', though he continually hesitated over this stem's precise form. The Etymologies, for example, derives ar 'and' and Q. ara 'outside, beside' from the base AR2- , while a text on various Quenya words for 'and' dating to c. 1965 states that ar 'and' was in origin a preposition from .Y ADA 'alongside, by the side of'. Still another form appears in a note from c. 1968 on enclitic -ye 'and' (VT47:31 n-44), which states that in general use this was replaced by ar (as) , from .Yasa 'beside' ; cp. Q. asambar(o), S. ahamar * 'neighbor', lit. *'one who dwells beside', from the Rough Notes placed with HFN (VT 48:20 n.16) . A list of prepositional stems on one of the narrow slips placed with AS 1-3 cites ad( a) 'beside', and another of these slips gives ada- 'besides I [ ?out] '32 followed by a paradigm of a preposition ara with various pronominal suffixes:33

    [Singular] [Plural] [Dual] anni > arni anwe > arme anwet > armet astye arwe alle aste > arde arse34 aste > arte

    ara, ari ara, arin

    Here original *ad- yielded an-, as-, al-, or ar-, depending on the first consonant in the pronominal suffix; but many of these forms were evidently later leveled to ar-, as 1 sg. anni > arni, 2 pl. aste > arde, etc. For the development

  • Page 26 Vinyar Tengwar · Number 49 June 2007

    of * dm > nw in 1 pl. exclusive an we ( < *ad-me) and 1 du. exclusive an wet ( < *ad-me-t), see "Five Late Quenya Volitive Inscriptions" in this issue, inscr. IV s.v. veryanwesto. The endings -i, -in in ari and arin are perhaps suffixed forms of the relative pronoun i, or else singular and plural forms of the definite article (cp. the two forms of the article in the question Mana i·coimas in·Eldaron? 'What is the coimas of the Eldar? '; Xll:403) .

    ke mo ' if one': See the entries for kii and mo in line 3 . In line 5 these words only occur in AS 6-7. The successive versions of line 5 involve varying degrees of ellipsis, beginning in AS 1 with ar formenna tentane Amanna *'and northwards, it pointed towards Aman: se. 'and [if one turned oneself] northwards, [the left hand] pointed towards Amall. This was pared down even further in AS 2, which has simply ar formenna Amanna *'and northwards, towards Aman: while in AS 3 and 4 Tolkien reverted back to ar formenna tentane Amanna, as in AS 1. The succinct syntax in these versions allowed for some potential confusion: ar formenna 'and northwards' might be taken to refer to where the left hand was pointing, rather than to the direction one faced. Tolkien eliminated this possible misreading in subsequent versions, first by adding ke to AS 6 (ar ke formenna tentane Amanna *'and if northwards, it pointed towards Aman') , then expanding this to ke mo in AS 7 (ar ke mo formenna tentanes Amanna *'and if one northwards, it pointed towards Aman') , in which ke mo unambiguously refers back to ke mo querne kendele 'if one turned the face' in line 3.

    formenna 'northwards': Allative of formen 'north' (LR:1123, V:382) , appearing in all versions save AS 5 ·

    tentanes 'it pointed': See the entry for tentane in line 4· In AS 1, Tolkien first wrote tente, then emended this to tentane, which is the form that appears in AS 3, 4, and 6. This verb was elided in AS 2 (see the entry for ke mo above) , and AS 5 was abandoned before reaching line 5· In AS 7 Tolkien first typed tentane, which was later emended in ink to tentanes; the addition of the inflection -s 'it' more clearly indicates that this verb refers to a different subject (i.e., the left hand) than the pronoun mo 'one' appearing earlier in the line.

    Amanna 'towards Am an': Allative of A man 'the Blessed Land' (so glossed in AS 7), appearing in all versions save AS 5 . Quendi and Eldar states that Q. am an 'blessed, free from evil: chiefly used as the name of the land of the Valar, was derived from a Valarin word35 meaning 'at peace, in accord (with Eru)' (XI:399) . This concept also occurs in other late writings; e.g., an essay from the late 196os notes that Q. Valin6re, Valinor 'the land of the V alar' "was the true Eldarin name of Aman, an element borrowed from the 'language of the V alar: " Etymological notes from 1957, on the other hand, derive Aman 'Unmarred State' from Eldarin ..fman- 'good', a root said to imply that a person or thing was (relatively or absolutely) 'unmarred: The concept that man- was a native Eldarin stem meaning 'good' dates back to the Qenya Lexicon, which lists mane 'good (moral): mande 'well', etc. under the root

  • June 2007 Page 27

    MANA. Regardless of whether Aman was a Valarin loanword or a native Quenya form, the point Tolkien makes in the final line of the Ambidexters Sentence remains the same: the left hand had positive connotations for the Eldar in part because when one faced north, it pointed toward the land whose very name was synonymous with blessedness and freedom from evil or defect.

    Appendix: Late Writings on ...J nii 'to be'

    There is surprisingly little information on the conjugation of na to be found in Tolkien's late writings, and the few texts that exist are usually no more than terse, hastily jotted notes. The conjugation of -1 na written above AS 1 is, in fact, one of the most complete and clearly written:

    ...J nii nain naitye nailye na nanye na-lye!tye nii niis(e) [ ?nalme] niine anaie nauva

    Following -lna in the first row are four aorist forms: 1 sg. nain, 2 sg. naitye (familiar), 2 sg. nailye (polite),36 and impersonal sg. na-these have the short stem vowel ( na-) and suffix -i typical of the aorist of basic verbs, except for impersonal na, in which -i is perhaps omitted to avoid confusion with nai 'be it that, maybe'. The second row gives the present tense, usually marked by a long stem vowel (na-) : 1 sg. nanye (which replaces a rejected form nain) , 2 sg. polite/ familiar na-lye/tye, impersonal sg. na, and 3 sg. nas(e). The last form in this row certainly begins with nal, but the ending is no more than a horizontal squiggle; 1 pi. exclusive nalme (attested in another text given below) was probably intended. In the third row, pa.t. nane is followed by perfect anaie, which was first written as anaye; for the shortened stem vowel in the emended form, compare Maiar 'the Beautiful' (X:49) and its alternative form Mayar (XII :363-64 n-45, 53) . Future nauva 'will be' is also attested in the late essay on negation cited by Bill Welden in VT 42 (pg. 34); see the entry for ke in line 3.

    A few other instances of pa.t. niine can be found elsewhere in Tolkien's late writings. For example, a page of extremely rough penciled notes on verbs with monoconsonantal stems (A&U waste paper dated 1967) cites na- 'be: past tense nane, and perfect anaie. Another example of nane used in a Quenya sentence appears in the following vocabulary note, written on A&U waste paper from 1968 and placed in the same brown folder as AS 1-3 (the note on qui ' if' and ke 'may be' cited above s.v. ke in line 3 appears on the same page):

    ...JSAB 'believe (that statements, reports, traditions, etc . are) true, accept as fad This in Quenya does not take as direct object a person-in sense 'believe he speaks truly'. Q. savin when it has a noun or name or pronoun as direct object means 'I believe he/she/it really exists/existed': as savin Elessar ar i nane aran Ond6reo 'I believe that E. really existed and that he was a King of Gondor:

  • Page 28 Vinyar Tengwar · Number 49 -�--------�------· June 2007

    To trust a man/woman, as not lying (or twisting words, or concealing something relevant) is expressed by: I believe (that) the words of A (are true) : savin Elesarno quetie I or i E. quetie naite. Or by a different verb, to trust, rely on (a person)Y

    Th e genitive form Elesarno in the second paragraph i s evidently a slip for *Elessarno. The form quetie, corresponding to 'the words' in the gloss, must literally mean *' [the) speaking', being a gerundial form of the verb quet- 'say, tell, speak' (aorist quete 'tells: pres. queta 'is saying'; VT 41:11, 13), from *KWET 'speak, utter words, say' (XI:391 ) . The adjective naite 'true' is another derivative of na- 'be', with the common adjectival ending -ite also seen in maite 'handy, skilful' < ma 'hand' (VT47:6) , hlonite 'phonetic' < hlon 'a noise, sound' (VT48:29), and ruskuite 'foxy' < rusko (rusku-) 'fox' (VT 41:10 ). Cp. anwa 'real, actual, true' in the Etymologies s.v. ANA 2-, a variant of NA 2- 'be, exist'; and nanwa 'existing, actual (true)', cited below from notes dating to the late 196os.

    There are also conjugations of na in Tolkien's late writings that give the past tense as ne rather than nane. One of the more extensive of these ne-conjugations appears in a bundle of four manuscript pages written on A&U waste paper from 1967. The first page, on which Tolkien wrote the date ''Apr. 6, '69", gives a summary of the distinction between the roots '>/ na and '>/ eiJe:

    Stem of verb 'exist' (have being in primary world of history) was ...JeiJe, distinct from ...Jna joining adjs./nouns/pronouns in statements (or wishes) asserting (or desiring) a thing to have certain quality, or to be the same as another.

    Present/continuous of ...JeiJe : is ea 'It exists' {Eru ea} ,38 used as noun = the whole created universe. Properly cannot be used of God since ea refers only to all things created by Eru directly or mediately.

    It is noted in Appendix D to Quendi and Eldar that ea 'exists' and engwe 'thing' point to " [t] he former presence of intervocalic fi, later lost in Quenya'' (VT39 :6-7), though the root '>leiJe 'exist' is not explicitly cited in that text.

    The second page in this bundle bears the heading "Irreg. Verbs" and includes the following notes on na and ea:

    nii is, [ ?it is as, ] 39 so. yes na = it is so. nato it is that no ui it is n [ ot] uito it is not that

    nake {not as} it is may be seeming una

    nii imp. nai let it be that past tense {ne nen} ne

    anen anel {an} ne I nese anes When stem of noun or verb is long & long [ ?markers,] double cons. was simplified after change of s > z.

    So ne-sse for nesse has nese.

  • June 2007 Vinyar Tengwar · Number 49

    Exists ea. .YeiJe . pres. & aorist ea, future euva, past enge. perfect e-eljije > eiJie [ > l eije > eye, rare. ana [logical) engie is used often.

    Page 29

    The form ui 'no, it is not' is apparently aorist. It is also attested on a page of rough notes on negative forms (c. 1968) , which gives the root iigu, gu 'not' along with a partial conjugation (subsequently struck out) : "u-, verb: uin(ye) I am not;40 uil(ye); uis; uC Related forms written nearby include ui ' it is not'; uilme and uir, probably the 1 pl. exclusive and impersonal pl. forms; and ugin, ugilme, evidently the etymological forms underlying uin and uilme.

    nato ' it is that' and uito ' it is not that' might be emphatic forms of 'yes' and 'no: The element - to is perhaps to 'thence', one of several derivatives of ta 'that' listed in DN, which also gives the etymology " ta io > to", indicating that this form is a partitive genitive. According to Quendi and Eldar, the partitive genitive could describe "the source or origin" of things, e.g., r6ma Oromeo 'a horn coming from Orome' (XI:368) ; also cp. Oiolosseo 'from Mount Everwhite' in Galadriel's Lament. So nato and uito are perhaps literally 'it is (from) that' and 'it is not (from) that', se. 'yes, it follows from that (previously mentioned)', etc.

    nake evidently ends in the particle ke indicating uncertainty (VT 42:34 n.2; also see the entry for ke above) . Its gloss is best understood as elliptical, 'it is [or] may be seeming', probably indicating a qualified or hesitant 'yes'. As first written, the gloss'was 'not as it is [or] may be seeming', perhaps a qualified 'no'. The form una following the gloss is probably an alternative to ui ' it is not' written above; una is also attested ( in notes closely contemporary with Quendi and Eldar) as an adjective meaning 'deprived of, destitute, forlorn', i.e., u- + adj. ending -na (VT39:14), but this clearly cannot be the word intended here.

    The abbreviation "imp:' after na in the next line probably stands for "imperative" rather than "impersonal", since na acts as an imperative in the form that follows: nai 'let it be that'.41 In the row of past-tense forms with pronominal endings, 1 sg. anen, 2 sg. anel (polite) , and 3 sg. anes might have a prefixed sund6ma (cp. the base ANA2- 'be, exist' in the Etymologies, a variant of NA2- 'to be' ) ; alternatively, these forms might be derived from a reversed form of NA, comparable to ista- 'to know' < IS 'know', with pa.t. sinte 'knew' < reversed *SI ( see above s.v. simaryassen in line 2).42 Whatever the case may be, disyllabic past-tense forms such as anen may have been preferable because they were more distinct than monosyllabic forms such as the rejected 1 sg. pa.t. nen. The absence of rhotacism in 3 sg. pa.t. nese is attributed to an original geminate ending -sse; this was simplified to -se following the long vowel in ne, but only after rhotacism had ceased to be an active process in Quenya (the wording of the statement "So ne-sse for nesse has nese" is somewhat confusing, but seems to mean "so ne-sse, instead of becoming nesse, became nese") . This same sequence of developments no doubt also accounts for 3 sg. present nase in the AS 1 conjugation (see also nasse three paragraphs below, and the discussion of quernesse s.v. querne in line 3 ) . A page of notes discussing the adjectival ending -ima dating from the late 196os43 also provides an example of nese used in a sentence: nese n6rima rokko 'he was a horse strong/swift at running'.

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    The past tense enge (probably a strong past formed by nasal infixion: *e-IJ-I}e) also occurs in Tolkien's translation of the Gloria Patri (VT 43:36) . A form eane, evidently an alternative weak past, was written in the margin, then struck out. The etymological perfect form e-el}ije bears a close structural resemblance to * awawiie, cited as the "older perfect form'' of Q. auta- 'go away, leave' ( < * AWA) in Quendi and Eldar (XI:366) , the chief difference being that *awawiie features reduplication (aw-aw-) rather than an augment (e-el)-) . The analogical perfect engie is based on pa.t. enge; Tolkien notes in Quendi and Eldar that "the forms of past and perfect became progressively more closely associated in Quenya'', hence *awawiie was replaced by *a-waniie (Q. avanie) "with intrusion of n from the past" (ibid. ) .

    A few other inflected forms of na can be found in Tolkien's late writings. A page of rough jottings on A&U waste paper from 196744 gives na, "impers [ onal] only':45 with plural nar and dual nat; the forms ne, ner, net are also cited, unlabeled but clearly the past tense singular, plural, and dual. DN mentions the use of abstract sa 'it'46 as a verbal suffix, as in nas 'it is', nas mara nin 'I like it: This phrase must literally mean *'it is good to me' (mara 'good' is usually attested with a long vowel, e.g., VT 42:33-4), the syntax being reminiscent of German es gefiillt mir 'I like it', lit. ' it pleases me', with dative mir.

    Another conjugation of na, probably from the late 196os,47 has "n/i it is, often aorist nanye, nalye, na, nasse, nalme, [nar >>] niir; past ne; future is uva". This apparently indicates that present nli ' it is' was also often used as an aorist, just as ea 'exists' is said to be both present and aorist in the text cited above (such a combining of present and aorist senses would seem to accord with the use of na as 'yes, it is so' on the "Irreg. Verbs" manuscript given above, since the negative counterpart on that manuscript, ui 'no, it is not', appears to be aorist in form). The 3 sg. form here is nasse, in which the original long form of the pronominal marker -sse is retained after a short vowel. To the left of this conjugation Tolkien wrote "nasse also = a person, an individual", in which -sse is not pronominal but rather a suffix used to derive nouns from verbal stems, as kelussi:! 'freshet, water falling out swiftly from a rocky spring' < kelu- 'flow out swiftly' (UT:426 s.v. Celos, cited there from The Rivers and Beacon-hills of Condor; see VT42:11) . Other related forms given on this page include niita, nat 'thing', and nanwa 'existing, actual (true):

    Tolkien's ideas about the conjugation of na thus clearly remained in a fairly fluid state even in his latest writings. A final example is provided by the following remarkable statement about the etymology and function of pa.t. ne, appearing in the same late text on "Homophonic stems" (c. 1968) cited above s.v. ten in line 2. Here Tolkien writes that the element ne

    . . . played a chief part in the indication of past time in C. E. , being found both as a verbal suffix marking past tenses, and by a curious treatment (probably descending from primitive Quendian methods of agglutination) also in the form of a nasal inserted before the final consonant of a verbal stem, while the e followed. This element with some such sense as 'ago' or 'behind' (se. earlier in time) is found in

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    both Quenya and Telerin as an independent word ne, functioning as a past tense of the verb 'to be' = it was. It does not, however, take any inflections of person, and is used actually as a curious past form of 'yes' in answers to questions of fact = ' it was so, it was as you say/ ask' (Questions of fact were answered in Eldarin in the positive by an uninflected form of the verb 'to be' : see below) . This element also occurs in Q. neya, nea 'once, at one time' -in the past; anda ne, andaneya 'long ago, once upon a time'; T. andane.

    Unfortunately, while Tolkien clearly intended to say more about the verb 'to be' in this essay (cf. his note "see below") , he abandoned the text before returning to the topic.


    1. Tolkien did not originally conceive of the Elves as ambidexters. The earliest lexicons, for example, explicitly portray the left hand as clumsy, the right as skilful. The Qenya Lexicon gives lenka 'slow, dull, stiff; left (hand)' and malenka 'lefthand, -ed', from