Retail Dic...

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  • 8/9/2019 Retail Dic...


    Retail Dictionary:


    A major retail store in a shopping centre; used to drive business to smaller retailers. These larger

    department stores or grocery stores are generally part of a retail chain and are the prominent business

    in a shopping mall.

    Asset Turnover

    A performance measure based on retailers net sales and total assets. It is equal to net sales divided by

    total assets.

    Big Box Stores

    Large stand-alone store with varying market niches.


    A brand is a name, symbol or other identifying mark for a sellers goods or services. It is distinct from

    other sellers.

    Brand Awareness

    A gauge of marketing effectiveness measured by the ability of a customer to recognize and/or recall a

    name, image or other mark associated with a particular brand.

    Break Even Point

    The point in business where the sales equal the expenses. There is no profit and no loss.

    Brick & Mortar

    Brick and mortar store refers to retail shops that are located in a building as opposed to an online

    shopping destination, door-to-door sales, kiosk or other similar site not housed within a structure.

    Chain Store

    One of a number of retail stores under the same ownership and dealing in the same merchandise.

    Convenience products

    Merchandise that is purchased frequently, without advance planning, including staples, impulse items,

    and emergency items.

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    A group in which several retailers pool their resources to buy products at a discount from

    manufacturers; also called group buying.

    Catchment Area

    The area from where the majority of a shops customers are located.

    Category Killer Store

    An especially large specialty store featuring an enormous selection in its product category and relatively

    low prices. It draws consumers from wide geographic areas.

    Chain Store

    One of a number of retail stores under the same ownership and dealing in the same merchandise.

    Convenience products

    Merchandise that is purchased frequently, without advance planning, including staples, impulse items,

    and emergency items.


    A group in which several retailers pool their resources to buy products at a discount from

    manufacturers; also called group buying.

    Catchment Area

    The area from where the majority of a shops customers are located.

    Category Killer Store

    An especially large specialty store featuring an enormous selection in its product category and relatively

    low prices. It draws consumers from wide geographic areas.

    Durable Goods/Durables

    Products that can be used frequently and have a long life expectancy, such as furniture, jewelry, and

    major appliances.

    Dry Grocery

    Generally food that is not fresh, eg. Masalas/condiments.

    Dead Areas

    Awkward spaces where normal displays cannot be set up.

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    Exists when unprofitable stores are closed or divisions are sold off by retailers dissatisfied with their


    Electronic Article Surveillance

    Involves attaching specially designed tags or labels to products to curb shoplifting.

    Ensemble Display

    An interior display whereby coordinated merchandise is grouped and displayed together.


    Internet retailing as it is usually referred to. Covers retailing using a variety of different technologies or

    media, mostly the internet. Products are chosen via a published catalog and payments made through

    credit cards and secure payment gateways.

    Ease of Entry

    Occurs for retailers due to low capital requirements and no, or relatively simple, licensing provisions.

    Everyday Low Pricing (EDLP)

    A version of customary pricing, whereby a retailer strives to sell its goods and services at consistently

    low prices throughout the selling season.

    End User

    The person who uses a product that has been manufactured and marketed. Based on the idea that the

    end goal of a manufactured product is for it to be useful to the consumer.

    First-in, first out

    A method of stock rotation in which goods that are received first are sold first. Newly received product is

    stocked behind the older merchandise.


    A fashion that gains and loses popularity very quickly.

    Factory Outlet

    A manufacturer-owned store selling that firms closeouts, discontinued merchandise, irregulars, canceled

    orders, and, sometimes, in-season, first-quality.

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    Flea Market

    Has many retail vendors offering a range of products at discount prices in plain surroundings. Many flea

    markets are located in nontraditional sites not normally associated with retailing. They may be indoor or


    Food-Based Superstore

    A retailer that is larger and more diversified than a conventional supermarket but usually smaller and

    less diversified than a combination store. It caters to consumers complete grocery needs and offers

    them the ability to buy fill-in general merchandise.

    Forecourt Retail

    One stop solution to all the demands of customers coming to petrol pumps.

    Food court

    an area as in a shopping mall where fast food is sold usually around a common eating area.

    Full-Line Discount Store

    A type of department store characterized by (1) a broad merchandise assortment; (2) centralized

    checkout service; (3) merchandise normally sold by self-service with minimal assistance; (4) no catalog

    order service; (5) private-brand nondurable goods and well-known manufacturer-brand durable goods;

    (6) hard goods accounting for a much greater percentage of sales than at traditional department stores;

    (7) a relatively inexpensive building, equipment, and fixtures; and (8) less emphasis on credit sales thanin full-service stores.


    A trading entity such as a marketing tool or method, a product or group of products or simply a trade



    The party that sells goods and services within the framework of the franchise.


    The party that established (manages) the franchise.

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    In the retail parlance, the number of people visiting a retail outlet in a period of time is called a footfall.

    Even though a footfall indicates the number of people who visited a retail outlet, it is only when footfalls

    are converted into purchases, that makes for retail success.


    The right under which a franchisee person or company may market a product or service, as granted by

    the franchisor (the proprietary owner). A franchise agreement is the contract defining the terms and

    conditions between the franchisor and franchisee. Franchises often give exclusive rights for a specified


    Gross Margin

    Gross margin is the difference between what an item costs and for what it sells.


    Tangible products for sale that can be held or touched.

    General Store

    A shop that sells a variety of goods including food.

    Generic Brands

    No-frills goods stocked by some retailers. These items usually receive secondary shelf locations, have

    little or no promotion support, are sometimes of less overall quality than other brands, are stocked in

    limited assortments, and have plain packages.

    Goods Retailing

    Focuses on the sale of tangible (physical) products.

    Goods/Service Category

    A retail firm line of business.

    Gray Market Goods

    Brand-name products purchased in foreign markets or goods transshipped from other retailers. They are

    often sold at low prices by unauthorized dealers.

    Generic Brands

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    No-frills goods stocked by some retailers. These items usually receive secondary shelf locations, have

    little or no promotion support, are sometimes of less overall quality than other brands, are stocked in

    limited assortments, and have plain packages.

    High Street

    a main street considered as important retail area


    A store department or product line primarily consisting of merchandise such as hardware, house wares,

    automotive, electronics, sporting goods, health and beauty aids or toys.

    Impulse Purchase

    Products that people purchase without planning for it, such as magazines or candy bars


    A retailer that owns only one retail unit

    Initial Markup (at Retail)

    Based on the original retail value assigned to merchandise less the merchandise costs, expressed as a

    percentage of the original retail price

    Inventory Management

    Involves a retailer seeking to acquire and maintain a proper merchandise assortment while ordering,

    shipping, handling, and related costs are kept in check.

    Inventory Shrinkage

    Involves employee theft, customer shoplifting, and vendor fraud.

    Isolated Store

    A freestanding retail outlet located on either a highway or a street. There are no adjacent retailers with

    which this type of store shares traffic.

    Inventory turnover

    A ratio measuring the adequacy and efficiency of the inventory balance, calculated by dividing the cost

    of goods sold by the amount of the average inventory.


    The term kiosk, as related to retailing, refers to a small stand-alone structure used as a point of

    purchase. This can be either a computer or display screen used to disseminate information to customers

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    or may be a free-standing, full-service retail location. Kiosks are often found in malls and other high-

    traffic locations.


    Traditional formats of low cost retailing stores in India, mostly as standalone family run, neighbourhood

    shops. Major strength being familiarization with immediate and regular customers, provision of credit

    facility, home delivery etc.

    Keystone Pricing

    Keystone pricing is a method of marking merchandise for resells to an amount that is double the

    wholesale price.

    Loss Leader

    A selected item that is deliberately sold at less than cost in order to attract customers.

    Loss Prevention

    Loss prevention is the act of reducing the amount of theft and shrinkage within a business.


    Layaway is the act of taking a deposit to store merchandise for a customer to purchase at a later date.

    Leased department

    A part of a department store that is actually leased out to another company and operated as an

    independent store within the department store; common with cosmetics companies.

    Limited line

    Describes a department store that carries a limited amount of merchandise, usually concentrating on

    clothing, accessories, and beauty supplies.

    Leader Pricing

    Occurs when a retailer advertises and sells selected items in its goods/service assortment at less than

    usual profit margins. The goal is to increase customer traffic in the hope of selling regularly priced goods

    and services in addition to the specially priced items.

    Leveraged Buyout (LBO)

    An ownership change that is mostly financed by loans from banks, investors, and others.

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    Any financial obligations a retailer incurs in operating a business.

    LIFO Method

    (Last in, first out) Assumes new merchandise is sold first, while older stock remains in inventory. It

    matches current sales with the current cost structure.

    Limited Decision Making

    Occurs when a consumer uses each of the steps in the purchase process but does not need to spend a

    great deal of time on each of them.


    The total process of moving goods from a manufacturer to a customer in the most timely and cost-

    efficient manner possible.

    Minimum Advertised Price

    A suppliers pricing policy that does not permit its resellers to advertise prices below some specified

    amount. It can include the resellers retail price as well.


    The amount of gross profit made when an item is sold.

    Merchandise Mix

    A merchandise mix is the breadth and depth of the products carried by retailers. Also known as product


    Mystery Shopping

    A quality check system employed by companies. Dummy customers are sent into stores to check upon

    quality of service, behaviour and knowledge of store employees etc.

    Merchandising plan

    A strategy for actual and projected sales for a specific period of time.


    The combining of two or more retail organizations into one company.

    Multiline drugstore

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    A store that sells a variety of health and beauty products, plus some small appliances and household

    items, in addition to prescription drugs.


    The way that products are displayed in a shop.

    Multiple (store)

    Retail Chain.

    Maintained Markup (at Retail)

    Based on the actual prices received for merchandise sold during a time period less merchandise cost,

    expressed as a percentage.

    Maintenance-Increase-Recoupment Lease

    Has a provision allowing for rent increases if a property owner taxes, heating bills, insurance, or other

    expenses rise beyond a certain point.

    Manufacturer (National) Brands

    Produced and controlled by manufacturers. They are usually well known, supported by manufacturer

    ads, somewhat pre-sold to consumers, require limited retailer investment, and often represent

    maximum product quality to consumers.

    Marketing Research in Retailing

    Entails the collection and analysis of information relating to specific issues or problems facing a retailer.

    Marketing Research Process

    Embodies a series of activities: defining the issue or problem to be studied, examining secondary data,

    generating primary data (if needed), analyzing data, making recommendations, and implementing


    Market Penetration

    A pricing strategy in which a retailer seeks to achieve large revenues by setting low prices and selling a

    high unit volume.

    Market-Segment Product Groupings

    Place various products appealing to a given target market together.

    Market Skimming

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    A pricing strategy wherein a firm charges premium prices and attracts customers less concerned with

    price than service, assortment, and status.

    Midnight sale

    A centrewide, merchants` association-sponsored, low-end, off-price promotion, generally continuing

    untill 11 p.m or midnight: one night only


    Planned reduction in the selling price of an item, usually to take effect either within a certain number of

    days after seasonal merchandise is received or at a specific date. Also, A reduction from selling price to

    meet the lower price of another retailer, adapt to inventory overstocking, clear out shopworn

    merchandise, reduce assortments of odds and ends, and increase customer traffic.

    Markdown Percentage

    The total markdown as a percentage of net sales (in dollars).

    Markup Percentage (at Retail)

    The difference between retail price and merchandise cost expressed as a percentage of retail price.

    Markup Pricing

    A form of cost-oriented pricing in which a retailer sets prices by adding per-unit merchandise costs,

    operating expenses, and desired profit.


    A sign used to display a store name and/or logo.

    Massed Promotion Effort

    Used by retailers that promote mostly in one or two seasons.

    Mass Marketing

    Selling goods and services to a broad spectrum of consumers.

    Mass Merchandising

    A positioning approach whereby retailers offer a discount or value-oriented image, a wide and/or deep

    merchandise assortment, and large store facilities.

    Mazur Plan

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    Divides all retail activities into four functional areas: merchandising, publicity, store management, and

    accounting and control.


    An enormous planned shopping center with 1-million-plus square feet of retail space, multiple anchor

    stores, up to several hundred specialty stores, food courts, and entertainment facilities.

    Membership Club

    Aims at price-conscious consumers, who must be members to shop.

    Memorandum Purchase

    Occurs when items are not paid for by the retailer until they are sold. The retailer can return unsold

    merchandise.However, it takes title on delivery and is responsible for damages.

    Merchandise Available for Sale

    Equals beginning inventory, purchases, and transportation charges.

    Merchandise Buying and Handling Process

    Comprised of an integrated and systematic sequence of steps from establishing a buying organization

    through regular re-evaluation.

    Merchandise Space

    The area where nondisplayed items are kept in stock or inventory.


    Consists of the activities involved in acquiring particular goods and/or services and making them

    available at the places, times, and prices and in the quantity to enable a retailer to reach its goals.


    Involve the combination of separately owned retail firms.


    A strategy whereby a firm adjusts shelf-space allocations to respond to customer and other differences

    among local markets.

    Minimum-Price Laws

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    A strategy whereby a firm adjusts shelf-space allocations to respond to customer and other differences

    among local markets.

    Model Stock Approach

    A method of determining the amount of floor space to carry and display a proper merchandise


    Model Stock Plan

    The planned composition of fashion goods, which reflects the mix of merchandise available based on

    expected sales. The model stock plan indicates product lines, colors, and size distributions.

    Monthly Sales Index

    A measure of sales seasonality that is calculated by dividing each month actual sales by average monthly

    sales and then multiplying the results by 100.

    Mother Hen with Branch Store Chickens Organization

    Exists when headquarters executives oversee and operate the branches. This works well if there are few

    branches and the buying preferences of branch customers are similar to customers of the main store.


    The reasons for consumers behavior.

    Multidimensional Scaling

    A statistical technique that allows attitudinal data to be collected for several attributes in a manner that

    allows data analysis to produce a single overall rating of a retailer (rather than a profile of individual


    Multiple-Unit Pricing

    A policy whereby a retailer offers discounts to customers who buy in quantity.

    Mom & Pop Stores

    Small independently run stores.

    M Commerce

    (mobile commerce) is the buying and selling of goods and services through wireless handheld devices

    such as cellular telephone and personal digital assistants (PDAs). Known as next-generation e-

    commerce, m-commerce enables users to access the Internet without needing to find a place to plug in.

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    Maintained markup

    The difference between the net sales and the gross cost of merchandise sold. it is the margin on sales

    before making adjustments for cash discounts earned and alternation costs.

    Non durable goods

    Products that are purchased frequently and used in a short period of time, such as beauty supplies and



    A pricing system in which each individual item does not have a price tag, instead a price is labeled on a

    bin or a shelf.

    Need-Satisfaction Approach

    A sales technique based on the principle that each customer has different wants; thus, a salespresentation should be geared to the demands of the individual.

    Negotiated Pricing

    Occurs when a retailer works out prices with individual customers because a unique or complex service

    is involved and a one-time price must be agreed upon.

    Neighborhood Business District (NBD)

    An unplanned shopping area that appeals to the convenience-shopping and service needs of a single

    residential area. The leading retailer is typically a supermarket, a large drugstore, or a variety store and

    it is situated on the major street(s) of its residential area.

    Neighborhood Shopping Center

    A planned shopping facility with the largest store being a supermarket and/or a drugstore. It serves

    3,000 to 50,000 people who are within 15 minutes driving time (usually fewer than 10 minutes).

    Net Lease

    Calls for all maintenance costs, such as heating, electricity, insurance, and interior repair, to be paid by

    the retailer -- which is responsible for their satisfactory quality.

    Net Profit

    Equals gross profit minus retail operating expenses.

    Net Profit Before Taxes

    The profit earned after all costs have been deducted.

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    Net Profit Margin

    A performance measure based on a retailers net profit and net sales. It is equal to net profit divided by

    net sales.

    Net Sales

    The revenues received by a retailer during a given time period after deducting customer returns,

    markdowns, and employee discounts.

    Net Worth

    Computed as a retailers assets minus its liabilities.

    Never-Out List

    Used when a retailer plans stock levels for best-sellers. Items accounting for high sales volume are

    stocked in a manner that ensures they are always available.

    Niche Retailing

    Enables retailers to identify customer segments and deploy unique strategies to address the desires of

    those segments.

    Nondisguised Survey

    A technique in which the respondent is told the real purpose of a research study.

    Nongoods Services

    The area of service retailing in which intangible personal services (rather than goods) are offered to

    consumers -- who experience services rather than possess them.

    Nonprobability Sample

    An approach in which stores, products, or customers are chosen by the researcher -- based on judgment

    or convenience.

    Nonstore Retailing

    Utilizes strategy mixes that are not store-based to reach consumers and complete transactions. It occurs

    via direct marketing, direct selling, and vending machines.

    Odd-Even Pricing

    A form of psychological pricing that suggests buyers are more sensitive to certain ending digits.

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    Merchandise budgeted for purchase during a certain time period that has not yet been ordered.

    Open background

    Describes a window display with a completely unobstructed view of the interior of the store.


    A mistake made when an employee enters an amount into the register that is more than the sale price.


    Retail outlet that caters for virtually every need within a product or service group or across all products

    and services.



    Objective-and-Task Method

    A promotional budgeting technique by which a retailer clearly defines its promotional goals and then

    prepares a budget to satisfy these goals.


    The long-run and short-run performance targets that a retailer hopes to attain. Goals can involve sales,

    profit, satisfaction of publics, and image.


    A form of research in which present behavior or the results of past behavior are observed and recorded.

    It can be human or mechanical.

    Odd Pricing

    A strategy in which retail prices are set at levels below even-dollar values, such as $0.49, $4.98, and


    Off-Price Chain

    Features brand-name apparel and accessories, footwear, linens, fabrics, cosmetics, and/or housewares

    and sells them at everyday low prices in an efficient, limited-service environment.

    Off-Retail Markdown Percentage

    The markdown for each item or category of items as a percentage of original retail price.

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    One-Hundred Percent Location

    The optimum site for a particular store. A location labeled as 100 percent for one firm may be less than

    optimal for another.

    One-Price Policy

    A strategy wherein a retailer charges the same price to all customers buying an item under similar


    Open Credit Account

    Requires a consumer to pay his or her bill in full when it is due.


    The difference between planned purchases and the purchase commitments already made by a buyer for

    a given time period, often a month. It represents the amount the buyer has left to spend for that monthand is reduced each time a purchase is made.

    Operating Expenditures

    The short-term selling and administrative costs of running a business.

    Operating Expenses

    The cost of running a retail business.

    Operations Management

    The efficient and effective implementation of the policies and tasks necessary to satisfy a firm

    customers, employees, and management (and stockholders, if a publicly owned company).

    Opportunistic Buying

    Negotiating special low prices for merchandise whose sales have not lived up to expectations, end-of-

    season goods, items consumers have returned to the manufacturer or another retailer, and closeouts.


    The marketplace openings that exist because other retailers have not yet capitalized on them.

    Opportunity Costs

    Involve forgoing possible benefits that may occur if a retailer could make expenditures in another

    opportunity rather than the one chosen.

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    Option Credit Account

    A form of revolving account that allows partial payments. No interest is assessed if a person pays a bill in

    full when it is due.

    Order-Getting Salesperson

    Actively involved with informing and persuading customers, and in closing sales. This is a true "sales"


    Order Lead Time

    The period from the date an order is placed by a retailer to the date merchandise is ready for sale

    (received, price-marked, and put on the selling floor).

    Order-Taking Salesperson

    Involved in routine clerical and sales functions, such as setting up displays, placing inventory on theshelves, answering simple questions, filling orders, and ringing up sales.

    Organizational Mission

    A retailers commitment to a type of business and to a distinctive role in the marketplace. It is reflected

    in the firms attitudes to consumers, employees, suppliers, competitors, government, and others.

    Outside Buying Organization

    A company or person external to the retailer that is .

    Outside Buying Organization

    A company or person external to the retailer that is hired to fulfill the buying function, usually on a fee

    basis .

    Overstored Trading Area

    A geographic area with so many stores selling a specific good or service that some retailers will be

    unable to earn an adequate profit.

    Owned-Goods Services

    The area of service retailing in which goods owned by consumers are repaired, improved, or maintained

    Online advertising

    is a form of advertising that uses the Internet and World Wide Web in order to deliver marketing

    messages and attract customers.

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    Precision Retailing

    Using data in information systems to make refined merchandising decisions store by store.


    Visual description, diagram or drawing of a stores layout to include placement of particular products and

    product categories

    Profit Margin

    A ratio of profitability calculated as earnings divided by revenues. It measures how much out of every

    dollar of sales a retail business actually keeps in earnings

    Product Life Cycle

    The stages that a new product is believed to go through from the beginning to the end: Introduction,

    Growth, Maturity and Decline

    Private Label

    Products which are generally manufactured or provided by one company under another companys



    Point of Sale (POS) refers to the area of a store where customers can pay for their purchases. The term is

    normally used to describe systems that record financial transactions. This could be an electric cash

    register or an integrated computer system which records the data that comprises a business transaction

    for the sale of goods or services

    Product Depth

    Product depth is the number of each item or particular style of a product on the shelves. Product depth

    is also known as product assortment or merchandise depth

    Product Breadth

    The product breadth is the variety of product lines offered by a retailer

    Purchase Order

    A purchase order (PO)is a written sales contract between buyer and seller detailing the exact

    merchandise or services to be rendered from a single vendor

    Point-of-Purchase Display

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    Point-of-purchase displays, or POP displays, are marketing materials or advertising placed next to the

    merchandise it is promoting. These items are generally located at the checkout area or other location

    where the purchase decision is made. For example, The checkout counters of many convenience stores

    are cluttered with cigarette and candy POP displays.

    Partial background

    The rear of a window display that is partially covered, but allows customers to see through the display

    into the store

    Patronage buying motive

    A reason customers will shop at one store instead of another, can be rational or emotional

    Pin ticket

    The sort of price ticket used on towels and washcloths that is attached with a pin

    Point-of-sale terminal

    An electronic machine at a checkout station that feeds information from product tags directly into a



    A system in which the manufacturer, rather than the retailer, marks merchandise with the retail price.


    A system in which a duplicate purchase order is sent to receiving when merchandise is ordered so that

    as soon as the merchandise is received, it can be marked with the correct prices.

    Product / Service Mix

    The number and kind of products and services a general merchandise retailer will offer.

    Product / Service planning

    The process of deciding what the product/service mix will be.

    Profit Center

    A section of a store that earns money for the retailer.

    Pull policy

    A promotional policy aimed at building strong consumer demand for a product.

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    Push policy

    A promotional policy aimed at markets with the intention of getting retailers to stock a product in order

    to build supply in the marketplace.


    A large flat board that is used to hold and move products.


    A plot of land used by street traders As in sales pitch, the approach, emphasis and nuances used when

    articulating the virtues of a service or product.


    Synthetic polymer often used to coat household goods such as refrigerators.

    Polyhook Bag

    A bag that contains a small plastic hangar as an integral part of the top of the bag.

    Price War

    A colloquial phrase denoting aggressive price reductions on the same (or similar) products by competing


    Primary Packaging

    The immediate packaging around the finished product.


    Obtaining Goods.

    Product Offer

    Products attributes, including price

    Parasite Store

    An outlet that does not create its own traffic and that has no real trading area of its own.


    An unincorporated retail firm owned by two or more persons, each of whom has a financial interest.

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    Perceived Risk

    The level of risk a consumer believes exists regarding the purchase of a specific good or service from a

    specific retailer, whether or not that belief is factually correct.

    Percentage Lease

    Stipulates that rent is related to the retailers sales or profits.

    Percentage-of-Sales Method

    A promotional budgeting technique whereby a retailer ties its promotion budget to sales revenue.

    Percentage Variation Method

    An inventory-level planning method where beginning-of-month planned inventory level during any

    month differs from planned average monthly stock by only one-half of that month variation from

    estimated average monthly sales.

    Percentage Variation Method

    An inventory-level planning method where beginning-of-month planned inventory level during any

    month differs from planned average monthly stock by only one-half of that month's variation from

    estimated average monthly sales.

    Performance Measures

    The criteria used to assess retailer effectiveness. They include total sales, average sales per store, sales

    by goods/service category, sales per square foot, gross margins, gross margin return on investment,

    operating income, inventory turnover, markdown percentages, employee turnover, financial ratios, and


    Perpetual-Inventory Unit-Control System

    Keeps a running total of the number of units handled by a retailer by ongoing record-keeping entries

    that adjust for sales, returns, transfers to other departments or stores, receipt of shipments, and other

    transactions. It can be done manually, use tags processed by computers, or rely on point-of-sale devices.

    Personal Selling

    Involves oral communication with one or more prospective customers for the purpose of making sales.

    Physical Inventory System

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    Involves an actual counting of merchandise. A retailer using the cost method of inventory valuation and

    relying on a physical inventory system can derive gross profit only as often as it conducts a full physical


    Planned Shopping Center

    Consists of a group of architecturally unified commercial establishments built on a site that is centrally

    owned or managed, designed and operated as a unit, based on balanced tenancy, and surrounded by

    parking facilities.

    Point-of-Purchase (POP) Display

    An interior display that provides consumers with information, adds to store atmosphere, and serves a

    substantial promotional role.


    Enables a retailer to devise its strategy in a way that projects an image relative to its retail category and

    its competitors, and elicits consumer responses to that image.

    Power Center

    A shopping site with (a) up to a half-dozen or so category killer stores and a mix of smaller stores or (b)

    several complementary stores specializing in a product category.

    Power Retailer

    The status reached by a company that is dominant in some aspect of its strategy. Consumers view the

    company as distinctive enough to become loyal to it and go out of their way to shop there.

    Power Retailer

    The status reached by a company that is dominant in some aspect of its strategy. Consumers view the

    company as distinctive enough to become loyal to it and go out of their way to shop there.

    Predatory Pricing

    Involves large retailers that seek to destroy competition by selling goods and services at very low prices,

    thus causing small retailers to go out of business. The practice is restricted by federal and state laws.

    Prestige Pricing

    Assumes consumers will not buy goods and services at prices deemed too low. It is based on the price-

    quality association.

    Price Elasticity of Demand

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    Relates to the sensitivity of customers to price changes in terms of the quantities they will buy.

    Price Guarantees

    Protect retailers against possible price declines. If a retailer cannot sell an item at a given price, the

    manufacturer pays it; the difference between planned retail and actual retail selling prices.

    Price Line Classifications

    Enable retail sales, inventories, and purchases to be analyzed by retail price category.

    Price Lining (1)

    A practice whereby retailers sell merchandise at a limited range of price points, with each price point

    representing a distinct level of quality.

    Price Lining (2)

    Used by service retailers providing a wide selection of services. A range of prices is matched to service


    Price-Quality Association

    A concept stating that many consumers feel high prices connote high quality and low prices connote low


    Primary Customer Services

    Those considered basic components of the retail strategy mix; they must be provided.

    Primary Trading Area

    Encompasses 50 percent to 80 percent of a store's customers. It is the geographic area closest to the

    store and possesses the highest density of customers to population and the highest per-capita sales.

    Private (Dealer) Brands

    Contain names designated by wholesalers or retailers, are more profitable to retailers, are better

    controlled by retailers, are not sold by competing retailers, are less expensive for consumers, and lead to

    customer loyalty to retailers.


    Productivity The efficiency with which a retail strategy is carried out.

    Product Life Cycle

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    Shows the expected behavior of a good or service over its life. The traditional cycle has four stages:

    introduction, growth, maturity, and decline

    Product/Trademark Franchising

    An arrangement in which franchised dealers acquire the identities of their suppliers by agreeing to sell

    the latter's products and/or operate under suppliers' names.

    Profit-and-Loss (Income) Statement

    Represents a summary of a retailer's revenues and expenses over a particular period of time, usually on

    a monthly, quarterly, and/or yearly basis

    Prototype Stores

    Occur with an operations strategy that requires multiple outlets in a chain to conform to relativelyuniform construction, layout, and operations standards.

    Psychological Pricing

    Refers to consumer perceptions of retail prices.

    Purchase Act

    An exchange of money or a promise to pay for ownership or use of a good or service. Purchase variables

    include the place of purchase, terms, and availability of merchandise.

    Purchase-Motivation Product Groupings

    Appeal to the consumer's urge to buy a product and the time he or she is willing to spend in shopping.

    Quantity Discount

    A reduction in price based on the amount purchased. May be offered in addition to any trade discount.

    Quick Response (QR) Inventory Planning

    Enables a retailer to reduce the amount of inventory it keeps on hand by ordering more frequently and

    in lower quantity.


    The sale of goods or commodities in small quantities directly to consumers.

    Reserve stock

    Merchandise that is kept somewhere other than the selling floor.

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    Resident Buying office

    An office located in a central merchandising area where buyers can receive information about products

    from a variety of manufacturers.


    Businesses that buy goods from wholesalers or manufacturers and resell them to customers.

    Retailing strategy

    A strategic plan to adapt to changing technology and markets, and meet company goals and objectives

    through retailing.

    Returns percentage

    The relationship between returns and allowances, and sales, calculated by dividing returns and

    allowances by gross sales.

    Ringseal ticket

    A pricing ticket shaped like a butterfly bandage, used on jewelry and lampshades.

    Retail Chain

    A group of shops operated by the same organization.

    Reverse Logistics

    Reverse movement of goods through the supply chain.

    Rack Display

    An interior display that hangs or presents products neatly.

    Rationalized Retailing

    A strategy involving a high degree of centralized management control combined with strict operating

    procedures for every phase of business.


    The number of distinct people exposed to a retailer's ads in a specified period.


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    The stage in the research process during which the alternative approach to best solve a problem or issue

    is presented.


    The activity whereby a retailer generates a list of job applicants.

    Reference Groups

    Influence people's thoughts and/or behavior. They may be classified as aspirational, membership, and


    Regional Shopping Center

    A large, planned shopping facility appealing to a geographically dispersed market. It has at least one or

    two full-sized department stores and 50 to 150 or more smaller retailers. The market for this center is

    100,000-plus people, who live or work up to 30 minutes' driving time from the center.

    Regression Model

    A computer site-selection model that develops a series of mathematical equations showing the

    association between potential store sales and various independent variables at each location under


    Reilly's Law of Retail Gravitation

    The traditional means of trading area delineation that establishes a point of indifference between two

    cities or communities, so the trading area of each can be determined

    Relationship Retailing

    Exists when retailers seek to establish and maintain long-term bonds with customers, rather than act as

    if each sales transaction is a completely new encounter with them

    Rented-Goods Services

    The area of service retailing in which consumers lease and use goods for specified periods of time.

    Reorder Point

    The stock level at which new orders must be placed

    Resident Buying Office

    An inside or outside buying organization that is usually situated in important merchandise centers

    (sources of supply) and provides valuable data and contacts.

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    Retail Audit

    The systematic examination and evaluation of a firm's total retailing effort or some specific aspect of it.

    Its purpose is to study what a retailer is presently doing, appraise how well the firm is performing, and

    make recommendations for future actions

    Retail Balance

    Refers to the mix of stores within a district or shopping center

    Retail Information System

    Anticipates the information needs of retail managers; collects, organizes, and stores relevant data on a

    continuous basis; and directs the flow of information to the proper retail decision makers.

    Retailing Concept

    Comprises these four elements: customer orientation, coordinated effort, value-driven, and goal


    Retailing Effectiveness Checklist

    Lets a firm systematically assess its preparedness for the future.

    Retail Institution

    Refers to the basic format or structure of a business. Institutions can be classified by ownership, store-

    based retail strategy mix, service versus goods retail strategy mix, and nonstore-based retail strategy


    Retail Life Cycle

    A theory asserting that institutions -- like the goods and services they sell -- pass through identifiable

    life-cycle stages: innovation, accelerated development, maturity, and decline.

    Retail Method of Accounting

    A way by which the closing inventory value is determined by calculating the average relationship

    between the cost and retail values of merchandise available for sale during a period .

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    Retail Organization

    How a firm structures and assigns tasks (functions), policies, resources, authority, responsibilities, and

    rewards so as to efficiently and effectively satisfy the needs of its target market, employees, and


    Retail Performance Index

    Encompasses five-year trends in revenue growth and profit growth, and a six-year average return on


    Retail Promotion

    Any communication by a retailer that informs, persuades, and/or reminds the target market about any

    aspect of that firm.

    Retail Reductions

    Represent the difference between beginning inventory plus purchases during the period and sales plus

    ending inventory. They should encompass anticipated markdowns, employee and other discounts, and

    stock shortages.

    Retail Strategy

    The overall plan guiding a retail firm. It has an influence on the firm's business activities and its response

    to market forces, such as competition and the economy.

    Return on Assets (ROA)

    A performance ratio based on a retailer's net sales, net profit, and total assets.

    Return on Net Worth

    A performance measure based on a retailer's net profit, net sales, total assets, and net worth.

    Revolving Credit Account

    Allows a customer to charge items and be billed monthly on the basis of the outstanding cumulative


    Robinson-Patman Act

    Bars manufacturers and wholesalers from discrimination in price or sales terms in selling to individual

    retailers if these retailers are purchasing products of "like quality" and the effect of such discrimination

    would be to injure competition.

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    Routine Decision Making

    Takes place when a consumer buys out of habit and skips steps in the purchase process.

    Retail Technology

    systems which increase retailers' efficiency and productivity and often create a competitive edge.

    Return on Investment(ROI)

    Is the amount of profit or cost saving that will be realized in return for a specific expenditure of money.

    It is usually expressed as a percentage of the original monetary outlay. The ROI ratio compares the net

    benefits of a project to its total costs.


    The practice of retailers building new stores and then selling them to real-estate investors who lease the

    property back to the retailers on a long-term basis.

    Sales Forecasting

    Lets a retailer estimate expected future sales for a given time period.

    Sales Opportunity Grid

    Rates the promise of new goods, services, procedures, and/or store outlets across a variety of criteria.

    Sales-Productivity Ratio

    A method for assigning floor space on the basis of sales or profit per foot.

    Saturated Trading Area

    A geographic area having proper amount of retail facilities to satisfy the needs of its population for a

    specific good or service, as well as to let retailers prosper.

    Lets a retailer project the future by examining the key factors that will affect its long-run performance

    and then preparing contingency plans based on alternate scenarios .

    Scrambled Merchandising

    Lets a retailer project the future by examining the key factors that will affect its long-run performance

    and then preparing contingency plans based on alternate scenarios.

    Scrambled Merchandising

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    Occurs when a retailer adds goods and services that are unrelated to each other and to the firm's

    original business.

    Secondary Business District (SBD)

    An unplanned shopping area in a city or town that is usually bounded by the intersection of two major

    streets. It has at least a junior department store, a variety store, and/or some larger specialty stores -- in

    addition to many smaller stores.

    Secondary Trading Area

    A geographic area with an added 15 percent to 25 percent of a store's customers. It is located outside a

    primary trading area, and customers are more widely dispersed.

    Selective Distribution

    Takes place when suppliers sell through a moderate number of retailers. This allows suppliers to have

    higher sales than in exclusive distribution and lets retailers carry some competing brands.


    A life-style concept whereby people express their growing sense of uniqueness through goods and

    services purchases.

    Selling Against the Brand

    The practice of retailers carrying manufacturers' brands and placing high prices on them so rival brands

    (such as private-label goods) can be sold more easily.

    Selling Space

    The area set aside for displays of merchandise, interactions between salespeople and customers,

    demonstrations, and so on.

    Separate Store Organization

    Treats each branch as a separate store with its own buying responsibilities. Customer needs are quickly

    noted, but duplication by managers in the main store and the branches is possible.

    Service Blueprint

    Systematically lists all the service functions to be performed and the average time expected for each

    one's completion.

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    Service Retailing

    Involves transactions between companies or individuals and final consumers where the consumers do

    not purchase or acquire ownership of tangible products. It encompasses rented goods, owned goods,

    and nongoods.


    Lets retailers assess the quality of their service offerings by asking customers to react to a series of

    statements in five areas of performance: reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy, and tangibles.


    A type of experiment whereby a computer-based program is used to manipulate the elements of a retail

    strategy mix rather than test them in a real setting.

    Situation Analysis

    The candid evaluation of the opportunities and potential problems facing a prospective or existing


    Sole Proprietorship

    An unincorporated retail firm owned by one person.

    Sorting Process

    Involves the retailer's collecting an assortment of goods and services from various sources, buying them

    in large quantity, and offering to sell them to consumers in small quantities.


    Enables a firm to cater to specific needs of customer segments, emphasize a limited number of items,

    and reduce its catalog production and postage costs.

    Specialty Store

    A general merchandise retailer that concentrates on selling a specific kind of product or service.


    A strategy of directly applying a tried and tested retail strategy to newer markets to ensure customers

    get the same experience across all stores of a chain.

    Standard Merchandise Classification

    A detailed list of common merchandise-reporting categories devised by the National Retail Federation.

    Its use lets retailers contrast their financial data with industry averages.

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    Stock-to-Sales Method

    An inventory-level planning technique wherein a retailer wants to maintain a specified ratio of goods-

    on-hand to sales.

    Stock Turnover

    Represents the number of times during a specific period, usually one year, in which the average

    inventory on hand, is sold. Stock turnover can be computed in units or money (at retail or cost).

    Storability Product Groupings

    Classify and display products needing special handling and storage together.


    The total physical exterior of a store. It includes the marquee, entrances, windows, lighting, and

    construction materials.

    Store Loyalty

    Exists when a consumer regularly patronizes a particular retailer (store or nonstore) that he or she

    knows, likes, and trusts.

    Store Maintenance

    Encompasses all the activities involved in managing a retailer's physical facilities.

    Straight Lease

    Requires the retailer to pay a fixed amount per month over the life of a lease. It is the simplest, most

    direct leasing arrangement.

    Sales Floor

    The sales floor is the location in a retail store where goods are displayed and sales transactions take

    place. For example, the receiving of merchandise takes place in the stock room, but all direct sales and

    customer interactions are done on the sales floor


    Shoplifting is the taking of merchandise offered for sale without paying.


    Retail shrinkage is a reduction or loss in inventory due to shoplifting, employee theft, paperwork errors

    and supplier fraud

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    The Stock Keeping Unit (SKU) is a number assigned to a product by a retail store to identify the price,

    product options and manufacturer


    A loss prevention term referring to the act of a cashier passing merchandise around the cash register

    barcode scanner without actually scanning the item


    A store department or product line primarily consisting of merchandise such as clothing, footwear,

    jewelery, linen and towels

    Staple Goods

    Staple goods are products purchased regularly and out of necessity. Traditionally, these items havefewer markdowns and lower profit margins. While price shifts may raise or lower demand for certain

    kinds of products, the demand for staple goods rarely changes when prices change.


    A sheer fabric onto which pictures can be painted to be used as a transparent backdrop in the theater

    and as a visual merchandising prop in stores


    A product/service mix that offers only a service, with no accompanying product needed or wanted, such

    as an insurance policy.

    Service with accompanying products

    A product/service mix in which a service is the primary offering, such as interior decorating, and

    products, such as curtains and carpet, are offered to accompany and augment the service.

    Shoplifting detection wafer

    A small device attached to goods, especially clothing, that sets off an alarm if it leaves the store.

    Specialty products

    Products that solve a specific want or need for specific customers, often expensive products with special

    characteristics or brand identity.

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    Specification buying

    Demands made by retailers and wholesalers to manufacturers of the products they sponsor and sell.

    Store Operations

    Includes all functions of operating a store except merchandising, such as customer service, protection,

    maintenance, and distribution.

    String Ticket

    A pricing ticket attached with a piece of string.

    Supportive Services

    Free services offered to customers to increase convenience, make shopping easier, and entice

    customers to buy more.

    Sales Promotion

    A time-limited period when a product or group of products are given extra publicity and intense

    marketing support. Generally used to give a boost to sales of a certain product category/brand.

    Secondary Packaging

    The container in which several finished packs would be distributed (and sometimes displayed in).


    A store where customers can pick the goods directly from the display and take them to the checkout forpayment.

    Shadow Box

    A cabinet display built into a wall.

    Same Store Sales

    A statistic used in retail industry analysis. It compares sales of stores that have been open for a year or

    more. This statistic allows investors to determine what portion of new sales has come from sales growth

    and what portion from the opening of new stores. Same store sales are usually released by retail

    companies on a monthly basis. This is also known as "comps."


    A type of merchandising fixture commonly used to display apparel, with either straight or waterfall


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    Triple Net Lease

    A triple net lease is a rental agreement on a commercial property where the tenant agrees to pay all real

    estate taxes, building insurance, and maintenance on the property.

    Vertical Retailer

    Retailers that sell only their own branded merchandise; these goods are not found anywhere except in

    their own stores or catelogues (also called lifestyle retailer).