Bioplastiques : du biodأ©gradable au durable 2014-03-12آ  26 Biobased and Biodegradable Polymers...

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Transcript of Bioplastiques : du biodأ©gradable au durable 2014-03-12آ  26 Biobased and Biodegradable Polymers...

  • Pr. Luc Avérous

    BioTeam ICPEES – UMR CNRS 7515

    ECPM : École Européenne de Chimie, Polymères et Matériaux (ECPM)

    Université de Strasbourg (UniStra)

    email : luc.averous@unistra.fr

    Website : www.BIODEG.NET

    Twitter : LucAverous

    Bioplastiques : du biodégradable

    au durable

    Reims le 7 février 2014 -Ne pas reproduire sans autorisation -

    mailto:luc.averous@unistra.fr http://www.biodeg.net/

  • General Topic (BioTeam):

    ► Biobased and/or Biodegradable Polymers,

    for Environmental and Biomedical Applications.

    Springer 2012

  • BioTeam Members (18) :

     Staff(4): • Pr. Luc Avérous (BioTeam leader)

    • Dr. Eric Pollet (A/Prof.)

    • Pr. Jean Marc Jeltsch (Vice-President UniStra)

    • Dr. Vincent Phalip (A/Prof.)

     Researchers (14):

     Post-Doct. (3):

    • Dr. Marina Magaton (Funding Brazil, 2013-2014)

    • Dr. Dhriti Khandal (Europ. Project, 2013-2016)

    • Dr. Alexandru Sarbu (2014/2015)

     PhD Students (8):

    • Flavie Prévot (Government, 2011-2014)

    • Camille Carré (Region + Company, 2011-2014)

    • Alice Arbenz (CIFRE, 2011-2014)

    • Stéphane Duchiron (Company, 2012-2015)

    • Marie Reulier (CIFRE, 2012-2015)

    • Thibaud Debuissy (European Project, 2013-2016)

    • Amparo Jimenez-Quero (Government, 2013-2016)

    • Rogerio Prataviera (Co-Direction w/ Brazil – UFSCar)

    > Masters (3)

    BioTeam

  • Biorefinery from Biomass

    Seeds

    Starch

    Ligno-cellulosic

    Fibers

    Chitin, Chitosan

    Mushroom, Crustaceas…

    Vegetable Oils

    Fractionation

    Extraction

    Thermoplastic

    Starch

    Biocomposites

    BioMaterials

    Biobased

    Thermosets &

    Thermoplastics

    Fermentation

    PHAs, PLA

    Lignins & Tannins

    -based Materials

    Clay

    Nano-Biocomposites

    Fractionation

  • BioTeam

    ► Integration, from the biomass to final objects

    Chemical

    Synthesis

    Characterization

    Formulation

    Process

    Biomass: Triglycerides,

    Ligno-cellulose,

    Tannins, Starch,

    Chitin, …

    Final Objects: For automotive,

    Building, Textile,

    Packaging,

    Agriculture …

    Bio-

    Production

    Integration « Biochemistry/Chemistry & Process »

  • Academic international collaborations:

  • Funding – Cooperation - Partners

  • Pr. Luc Avérous

    BioTeam ICPEES – UMR CNRS 7515

    ECPM : École Européenne de Chimie, Polymères et Matériaux (ECPM)

    Université de Strasbourg (UniStra)

    email : luc.averous@unistra.fr

    Website : www.BIODEG.NET

    Twitter : LucAverous

    Bioplastiques : du biodégradable

    au durable

    Reims le 7 février 2014 -Ne pas reproduire sans autorisation -

    mailto:luc.averous@unistra.fr http://www.biodeg.net/

  • Outline

    1. Bioplastics: Some Definitions and the

    Market

    2. Biobased and durable polymers / Biobased

    and biodegradable polymers

    9

  • Pr. Luc Avérous

    BioTeam ICPEES – UMR CNRS 7515

    ECPM : École Européenne de Chimie, Polymères et Matériaux (ECPM)

    Université de Strasbourg (UniStra)

    email : luc.averous@unistra.fr

    Website : www.BIODEG.NET

    Twitter : LucAverous

    1- Bioplastics: Some definitions and the

    Market

    mailto:luc.averous@unistra.fr http://www.biodeg.net/

  •  Biomacromolecules : Macromolecules, which are elaborated from

    living organisms (proteins, polysaccharides, bacterial polymers …)

    [Caracteristics]

     Biopolymers : substances based on biomacromolecules

    [Applications]

    Nota: PLA is not a biopolymer!

    Some definitions (IUPAC):

    11

  •  BIOPLASTICS : “Industrial” term used to qualify biobased and/or

    biodegradable (environment) polymers.

    (e.g., PLA, PA11, PCL …)

    Another definitions:

    12

  • Pr. Luc Avérous

    BioTeam ICPEES – UMR CNRS 7515

    ECPM : École Européenne de Chimie, Polymères et Matériaux (ECPM)

    Université de Strasbourg (UniStra)

    email : luc.averous@unistra.fr

    Website : www.BIODEG.NET

    Twitter : LucAverous

    Bioplastics : The market

    mailto:luc.averous@unistra.fr http://www.biodeg.net/

  • Worlwide Bioplastics – Trends

    Some indicators:

    - Growth: 10-20 % per year

    - Market: 1 Billion $/year

    Europe

    14

  • Pr. Luc Avérous

    BioTeam ICPEES – UMR CNRS 7515

    ECPM : École Européenne de Chimie, Polymères et Matériaux (ECPM)

    Université de Strasbourg (UniStra)

    email : luc.averous@unistra.fr

    Website : www.BIODEG.NET

    Twitter : LucAverous

    2- Biobased and durable polymers /

    Biobased and biodegradable polymers

    mailto:luc.averous@unistra.fr http://www.biodeg.net/

  • 16

    Biobased polymers

     Biobased polymers for Long term

    applications (Durable) e.g.,

    Automotive, Building …

     Biobased and biodegradable polymers

    for Short term applications e.g.,

    Packaging, Agriculture, Hygiene …

  • – Bacterial Polyesters: PolyHydroxyAlkanoates (PHA), …

    – Cellulose: Crop and forestry fibres (Composites with “petro- plastics”) -> Bioethanol

    – Hemicellulose

    – Lignin and Tanins

    – Starch: from corn, wheat, potatoes, pea …-> Bioethanol

    – Proteins: Gluten, zein, Corn, elastin, collagen, soybean

    – Vegetable Oils

    Biobased polymers

    Sources of agricultural feedstock:

    17

  • 18

    Production of Polyethylene

    Biobased and Durable Polymers

  • 19

    Production of Polypropylene (Metathesis)

    Biobased and Durable Polymers

    Polyolefins (PE,PP) = 2/3 of plastic market

  • 20

    Production of PET, PTT, PBT …

    Biobased and Durable Polymers

  • Vegetable oils

    O

    O

    O

    O

    O

    O

    1

    Vegetable oil = 95% of triglycerides (tri-ester of glycerol and fatty acids)

    Glycerol Fatty acid

    • Chain length : C6 à C24, hydrophobic

    • Low toxicity

    • Highly available

    • Low price

    0

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    30

    35

    40

    45

    1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010

    Year

    P la

    n t

    o il p

    ro d

    u c ti

    o n

    ( M

    M T

    ) Palm oil Rapeseed oil

    Soybean oil Sunflower oil

    Biobased and Durable Polymers

    21

  • Structures of main Fatty acids

    O

    O

    O

    O

    O

    O

    1

    Fatty acid

    Biobased and Durable Polymers

    22

  • Wide Variety of Functional Polyurethanes By combining green polyols with di-isocyanates, we can produce a wide variety of functional polyurethanes (Foam …) at a competitive cost (e.g., Ford, Biobased Insulation, BioFoam, Dow, Cargill, Merquinsa …)

    Biobased and Durable Polymers

    23

  • Pr. Luc Avérous

    BioTeam ICPEES – UMR CNRS 7515

    ECPM : École Européenne de Chimie, Polymères et Matériaux (ECPM)

    Université de Strasbourg (UniStra)

    email : luc.averous@unistra.fr

    Website : www.BIODEG.NET

    Twitter : LucAverous

    2- Biobased and durable polymers / Biobased and biodegradable polymers

    mailto:luc.averous@unistra.fr http://www.biodeg.net/

  • Applications: Packaging, Agriculture, Leisure, Hygiene, Catering, …

    Biobased and Biodegradable Polymers

    Polysaccharide: Starch-based materials

    25

  • 26

    Biobased and Biodegradable Polymers

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA)

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are a family of intracellular

    biopolymers synthesized by many bacteria as intracellular carbon and

    energy storage granules. PHAs are mainly produced from renewable

    resources by fermentation.

    A wide variety of prokaryotic organisms accumulate PHA from 30 to

    80% of their cellular dry weight.

    Only some bacterial strains show satisfactory levels of productivity:

    • Cupriavidus necator

    (former Ralstonia eutropha)

    • Alcaligenes lactus

    • Azotobacter vinelandii

    • some methylotrophs

    • Pseudomonas oleovorans

    • Recombinant Escherichia coli

    + Mixed cultures

  • Biobased and Biodegradable Polymers

    27

  • PLA: The Last Trends

    • PLA = Polymers for durable applications (No

    biodegra