Verbs in English

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A complete explanation on how verbs are made and used in English vs Spanish. Good grammar information and also useful for reading practice.

Transcript of Verbs in English

  • 1. Verbos: Tiempos de conjugacin y significados David Hiram Verduzco, Enrique Meneses, Stephanie Santamara
  • 2. QU ES UN VERBO? Clase de palabra con la que se expresan acciones, procesos, estados o existencia que afectan a las personas o las cosas; tiene variacin de tiempo, aspecto, modo, voz, nmero y persona; y funciona como ncleo del predicado. El verbo ingls es diferente al verbo espaol por dos razones principales: Primero, lleva pocas inflexiones. Los verbos regulares e irregulares, con la excepcin del verbo "to be", cambian solamente en la tercera persona singular (l, ella - he, she, it) en el tiempo presente. Este cambio se presenta en la terminacin de una "s". Segundo, se puede decir que el verbo ingls solamente posee dos tiempos: pasado y presente (anduve - I walked; ando - I walk). Para hablar del futuro hay que emplear aspectos compuestos del verbo o auxiliares (andar - I will walk; I'm going to walk etc.), los cules se llaman los auxiliares modales (modal auxiliaries). EN QUE ES DIFERENTE ?
  • 3. CUANTOS TIPOS DE VERBOS HAY? Podemos clasificar los verbos en cuatro clases. Verbos regulares. Son los que se conjugan siguiendo dos reglas: el Simple Past y el Past Participle tienen exactamente la misma terminacin ed Ejemplo: dance - danced danced Verbos irregulares. Los verbos irregulares en ingls son aquellos cuyo pasado simple y participio pasado no siguen ninguna regla ; la palabra cambia en su totalidad . Ejemplo: eat - ate eaten Verbos auxiliares. Slo hay tres pero son muy importantes: to be, to do y to have. Se llaman as porque aparte de poder utilizarse como verbos principales se usan como auxiliares, es decir, acompaan a cualquier otro verbo, que ser el verbo principal, para construir los tiempos verbales. Ejemplo: you are eating I have eaten Do you speak English?
  • 4. Verbos Modales. Son verbos auxiliares que no pueden funcionar como un verbo principal. Pueden expresar habilidad, posibilidad, necesidad u otra condicin. Son verbos auxiliares del futuro y del condicional. Como verbos complementarios que son, no funcionan sin otro verbo. Este otro verbo siempre va despus del verbo modal y est en la forma de base (el infinitivo sin "to"). No se conjugan los verbos modales y no tienen tiempo. Los verbos modales son: can, could, may, might, will, shall, should, ought to, must y would. Ejemplo. I can speak five languages. I couldn't sleep last night May I leave now? (http://www.shertonenglish.com/resources/es/irregular-verbs.php)
  • 5. CONJUGACION DE VERBOS EN INGLES TIEMPOS SIMPLES. Compuestos por el sujeto y el verbo TIEMPOS CONTINUOS. (presente, pasado y futuro). Estan compuestos por el verbo estar (to be) convenientemente conjugado Y el verbo principal en gerundio TIEMPOS PERFECTOS. estn compuestos por el verbo haber (to have) convenientemente conjugado Y el verbo principal en participio
  • 6. Presente Simple: En general, el presente simple expresa hechos o situaciones que existen, por lo general, habitualmente, sino que ahora existen, han existido en el pasado, y es probable que existan en el futuro. Ejemplos: It snows in Alaska. I watch television everyday. I visit my cousin all the time. Pasado Simple: Actividad ocurrida en un momento dado en el pasado, esto ocurri. Comenz y termin en el pasado. Ejemplos: It snowed yesterday. I watched television last night. I visited my cousin last year. Futuro Simple : En un determinado momento en el futuro esta accin va a suceder. Ejemplos: It will snow tomorrow. I will watch television tonight. I will visit my cousin later. Tiempos Simples
  • 7. PRESENTE SIMPLE Sujeto + verbo FORM Examples affirmative Example negative Example interrogative Infinitive He/she/it + -s I work He Works I go He goes I dont work He doesnt work I dont go He doesnt go Do I work? Does he work? Do I go? Does go? I go to the party. He/she goes to the party PRESENTE CONTINUO Sujeto + to be + verbo ing FORM Examples affirmative Example negative Example interrogative To be (am/are/is)+ Infinitive + ing (Im) I am working (Hes) He is working I am going He is going Im not working He isnt working Im not going He isnt going Am I working? Is he working? Am i going? Is he going? He is going to the party She is always shouting USO: Accin que se esta desarrollando en este momento /Accin habitual que se repite frecuentemente TIEMPOS DE CONJUGACIN
  • 8. PRESENTE PERFECTO Sujeto + have/has + p.p v FORM Examples affirmative Example negative Example interrogative Have/has + past participle* *(infinitive + -ed) or (3rd column of table of irregular verbs) I have worked He has worked I have gone He has gone I havent worked He hasnt worked I havent gone He hasnt gone Have I worked? Has he worked? Have I gone? Has he gone? He has cleaned the window I have bought a car PRESENTE PERFECTO CONTINUO Sujeto + have/has + been + verbo -ing FORM Examples affirmative Example negative Example interrogative Have/has + been+ infinitive + ing I have been working He has been working I have been going He has been going I havent been working He hasnt been working I havent been going He hasnt been going Have I been working? Has he been working? Have I been going? Has he been going? I have been studying I have been waiting for you USO: describe acciones que acaban de suceder en el pasado y que guardan alguna relacin con el presente. Describe acciones que empezaron en el pasado y que aun no han finalizado USO: se refiere acciones que se iniciaron en el pasado y que en el momento prsente se siguen desarrollando / acciones que se iniciaron en el pasado y que acaban de finalizar.
  • 9. PASADO SIMPLE Sujeto + verbo en pasado FORM Examples affirmative Example negative Example interrogative Regular: Infinitive + -ed Irregular: 2nd column of table of irregular verbs I worked He worked I went He went I didnt work He didnt work I didnt go He didnt go Did I work? Did he work? Did I go? Did he go? I studied English USO: se refiere a una accin que se desarrollo en el pasado. PASADO CONTINUO Sujeto + to be pasado + verbo -ing FORM Examples affirmative Example negative Example interrogative Was / were + infinitive + ing I was working He was working I was going He was going I wasnt working He wasnt working I wasnt going He wasnt going Was I working Was he working Was I going Was he going Last Monday he was travelling USO:describe acciones que se estaban desarrollando en el momento del pasado al que nos estamos refiriendo y que continuaron despus de ese momento.
  • 10. PASADO PERFECTO Sujeto + had + participio del verbo FORM Examples affirmative Example negative Example interrogative Had + past participe* *(infinitive + -ed) or (3rd column of table of irregular verbs) I had worked He had worked I had gone He had gone I hadnt worked He hadnt worked I hadnt gone He hadnt gone Had I worked? Had he worked? Had I gone? had he gone? She had waited for you USO: es el pasado del presente perfecto.
  • 11. FUTURE WILL Sujeto + will + infinitivo del verbo FORM Examples affirmative Example negative Example interrogative Will + infinitive Ill work Hell work Ill go Hell go I wont work He wont work I wont go He wont go Will i work? Will he work? Will I go? Will he go? I think it will snow USO: Se utiliza para hablar de un futuro no planificado o incierto Tambin para hacer predicciones FUTURE GOING TO Sujeto + be going to + verbo FORM Examples affirmative Example negative Example interrogative Be (am/are/is) + going to + infinitive Im going to work Hes going to work Im going to go Hes going to go Im not going to work Hes not going to work Im not going to go Hes not going to go Am I going to work Is he going to work Am I going to go Is he going to go Are you going to take the car tonight? USO: Accion relativa a una intensin o una decisin que se haba tomado con anterioridad, se utiliza para expresar planes,citas, etc.
  • 12. FUTURE CONTINUOS Sujeto + will + be+ verbo -ing FORM Examples affirmative Example negative Example interrogative Will + be infinitive + ing Ill be working Hell be working Ill be going Hell be going I wont be working He wont be working I wont be going He wont be going will I be working will he be working Will I be going Will he be going She will be visiting her mother USO: se utiliza el future continuos para describir una accin que va a tener lugar en el futuro y que en el momento del tiempo al que nos referimos aun seguir desarrollndose. Este momento del futuro puede mencionarse o no en la oracin.
  • 13. FUTURO PERFECTO Sujeto + will + have + pp verbo FORM Examples affirmative Example negative Example interrogative Will + have + past participe* *(infinitive + -ed) or (3rd column of table of irregular verbs) Ill have worked Hell have worked Ill have gone Hell have gone I wont have worked He wont have worked I wont have gone He wont have gone will I have worked? will he have worked? Will I have gone? Will he have gone? Before summer you