Tend¨ncies en seguretat aliment ria del sector porc­ - Marta Hugas

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  • 1. Tendncies de futur en seguretat alimentaria relacionades amb el sector porci INNOVACSetembre 2011 Dr Marta HugasUnit on Biological Hazards, Head

2. Estructura EFSA Toxiinfeccions alimentaries en la UE (sector porci) Riscs importants en inspeccio carnia de canals de porc Avaluacio de riscos Salmonella en porcs Avaluacio de tecniques decontaminacio de canals 3. From field to plateWe advise on food/feed safety across the entirefood chain3 4. Working together Cooperation with: 30 national food safety agencies 400 research institutes 1500 experts EU Agencies 3rd country and internationalorganisations4 5. How do we do it? EFSAs scientists evaluate, assess, advise5 6. Risk Analysis [CAC,01]: a decision paradigmfor Food Safety GovernancePreliminaryReviewactivities Monitoring EC EFSAEC+EFSARISK RISKRISKMANAGEMENTASSESSMENT COMMUNICATIONCOM= == The Policy The Science The Exchange Implementation Options Options selection identification 6 7. The BIOHAZ PanelThe Panel on Biological Hazards deals withquestions on biological hazards relating to FoodSafety and Food-borne Diseases, including: Food-borne Zoonoses; Food Hygiene; Microbiology; Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies; Associated Waste Management. 8. Zoonoses in humans; notification ratesin EU, 2009, EUSR Campylobacteriosis(198,252)Based on the reported Salmonellosis(108,614)fatality rates and theYersiniosis(7,595)total numbers of VTEC (3,573)reported confirmed Toxoplasmosis (1,259)cases, in 2009: Q fever(1,987)Zoonoses Listeriosis- 270 deaths due to(1,645)Echinococcosis (790)listeriosis;Trichinellosis (748)- 90 deaths due toBrucellosis(401)salmonellosis; and Tuberculosis caused by M. bovis*(115)- 40 deaths due toRabies (1) 0 5 1015 2025 30 35 40 45 50campylobacteriosisNotif ication rate per 100,000 population 8 9. Salmonellosis in humans in EU, 2005-2009;EUSR45.0 Confirmed cases per 100,000 population 5.0 0.0 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Significantly decreasing trend in human cases since 2005; decrease of17.4% compared to 2008 Decrease supposed to be mainly due to successful controls of Salmonella in laying hens, breeding flocks and eggs 9 10. Listeriosis in humans in EU, 2005-2009;EUSR 0.40confirmed cases per 100,000 population 0.30 0.20 0.10 0.002005 2006 2007 2008 2009 In 2009, listeriosis in humans increased; of concern in EU High case fatality rate of 16.6%, approx. 270 deaths The highest notification rate in those aged over 65 years:covering 58.5 % of the reported cases 11. L.monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods, meeting the EU criterion ,2006-2009Fishery products% non-compliance at retail (smoked fish),RTE products of meat origin soft/semisoft cheeses and RTE Soft and semi-soft cheese,meat productsRTE have highest % of 2006 2007 non-complianceHard cheese, RTE 2008with the 100 cfu/g 2009criterion (0.3 -1.1%) Fishery products, RTENo major changes Other RTE productsobserved over theyears0.0 0.51.0 1.5 2.0 12. Yersiniosis in humans in EU, 2005-2009:EUSR Yersiniosis in humans has decreased in EU in 2005-2009 with a statistically significant trend 12 13. Food-borne outbreaks in EU, 2009, EUSR Unknown Salmonella Viruses Bacterial toxins CampylobacterVerified outbreaks Other causative agentsPossible outbreaks Escherichia coli, pathogenic ParasitesOther bacterial agentsNumber of outbreaks5,550 food-borne outbreaks; 48,964 human cases, 4,356 hospitalisationsand 46 deaths in 2009.Main causes Salmonella (31%), viruses (19%), bacterial toxins (10%),Main vehicles eggs (17%), mixed meals (8%), pork (8% ) 14. Trends in food-borne outbreaks2007-2009; EUSRUnknownSalmonellaVirusesBacterial toxinsCampylobacter2007Other causative agents20082009Escherichia coli, pathogenicParasites Other bacterial agents Number of outbreaks Salmonella outbreaks declined, virus andbacterial toxins outbreaks increased 14 15. Food-borne outbreaks caused by Salmonella in EU, 2009Distribution of food vehicle in verified outbreaks caused by Salmonella in the EU, 2009 15 16. Causative agents in food-borneoutbreaks, 2009; EUSR Egg and egg products outbreaks 97% causedby Salmonella Pig meat outbreaks Trichinella 40%,Clostridium 22%, Salmonella 16% Mixed and buffet meals outbreaks Salmonella23%, Bacillus 20%, Clostridium 20%,Staphylococcus 17% Fish outbreaks 65% histamine Fruit and vegetables outbreaks 65% viruses 17. Results : SA based on microbial subtyping,EU-level 18. Results : SA based on microbial subtyping,by EU-regions 19. Results : SA based on microbial subtyping,by reporting country 20. Conclusions (1)Covered by the microbial subtyping approach: the relative contribution of sources varied between regions andcountries At EU-level : eggs were estimated to be the most important source, contributingwith 48% of all Salmonella cases, followed by pigs (29.6%) turkeys (4.4%) and broilers (3.7%) were estimated to be lessimportant sources. around 10% of cases were reported as travel-related, and 3.9%were part of outbreaks with unknown source Regional analysis: eggs were the most important source in Northern, Eastern andWestern Europe, whereas pigs were the major source in SouthernEurope A large proportion of reported cases in Northern Europeancountries were acquired abroad 21. Prevalence of Salmonella in pigproduction holdingsBaseline survey in EU - 27 in 2008 22. Prevalence of Salmonella-positivebreeding holdings, 2008 Spain NetherlandsIrelandUnited KingdomItalyFrance CyprusPortugalDenmark LuxembourgEU prevalence:Hungary EU28.7% (95%CI: 26.3-31.0) Germany LatviaBelgium Switzerland MS prevalence:SlovakiaCzech Republic ranged from 0 to 64%Poland AustriaBulgaria Sweden Estonia FinlandLithuaniaSlovenia Norway0 102030405060 70 Prevalence of Salmonella positive holdings22 23. Prevalence of Salmonella-positiveproduction holdings, 2008 Netherlands SpainIrelandUnited KingdomItalyPortugalDenmarkFranceBelgium EU LatviaEU prevalence:Hungary Luxembourg 33.3% (95%CI: 30.9-35.7) GermanySlovakia CyprusCzech Republic MS prevalence: SwitzerlandSlovenia ranged from 0 to 55.7%PolandLithuania Austria EstoniaBulgaria Norway Sweden Finland0 1020 3040 50 60 Prevalence of Salmonella positive holdings 23 24. Prevalence of Salmonella-positive breedingholdings versus production holdings, 2008 25. PH risks from Salmonella in pigsBreederContribution SlaughterContributionHuman (%) (%)pigspigs casesPrevalencePrevalencePrevalence Farm levelTransport, lairage, slaughter Sources of infectionContamination of carcasses Treatment/control Control measures25 26. QMRA Salmonella in pigs(EFSA-Q-2006-176) Objective:estimate to which extent human salmonellosis cases can bereduced by reducing the prevalence of Salmonella in slaughterand breeder pigs and/or by reducing the carcass contaminationat slaughterhouse level Conclusions; 80% or 90% reduction of prevalence in slaughter pigs should result in a comparable reduction in the number of human cases A reduction of two logs of Salmonella numbers on contaminated carcasses would result in a 60-80% reduction of the number of human cases At farm level, control measures are most effective if they achieve Salmonella-free breeder pigs and feed, and prevention of introduction of Salmonella via environment (i.e. rodents, birds) At slaughterhouse level prevention of feacal leakage and carcass decontamination are considered efficient 26 27. Recommendations The slaughterhouse remains a critical step of thepig meat chain in respect to pig and carcasscontamination. Studies to properly assess theways carcasses become contaminated shouldbe encouraged Field trials of possible interventions are urgentlyrequired. The airborne transmission of Salmonella in theabattoir should be paid more attention 28. Main risks to PH by Meat Inspection of Pig carcasses Hazards from scientific literature were ranked qualitatively based on: their prevalence in carcasses source attribution of human cases to pork incidence and severity in humansResulting in a shortlist of hazards 29. Main risks to PH by Meat Inspection of Pig carcasses High relevance:Salmonella Medium relevance:Yersinia enterocolitica, Toxoplasma gondii Trichinella Low relevance: Listeria Campylobacter VTEC Clostridium Mycobacteria Staph aureus HEVHazards ranked based on: prevalence in carcasses, source attribution ofhuman cases to pork and incidence and severity in humans 30. Inspection methods for new hazards currentlynot covered by the meat inspection system A comprehensive pork carcass safety assurance, combining a range of preventive measures applied both on-farm and at-abattoir is the only way to ensure effective control of the hazards identified above. A prerequisite for this system is setting targets in respect to the main hazards to be achieved on chilled carcasses. These would also inform what has to be achieved at earlier steps in the food chain. At abattoir level, the risk reduction for the main hazards can be achieved through programs based on GMP/GHP and HACCP, including: hygienic and technology-based measures aimed at avoiding cross-contamination withSalmonella and Yersinia enterocolitica; with additional interventions such as surfacedecontamination of carcasses if considered necessary; heat- or freezing-based treatments of carcass meat to inactivate intramuscular parasitesToxoplasma gondii and Trichinella if considered necessary and as alternative to relatedlaboratory testing of carcasses; FCI should be used to differentiate incoming pigs in respect to hazard risks based on herdstatus via sampling at farms or abattoirs, and to differentiate risk-reduction capacity ofabattoirs (process hygiene). At farm level, the risk reduction for the main hazards can be achieved through measures such as herd health programs, closed breeding pyramids, GHP and GFP and categorisation of animals based on the carrier state of these agents. 30 31. Decontamination of carcasses 32. Background Art 3(2) of Regulation (EC) No 853/2004: legal basis toappro