Pensadores Pedagógicos

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    Corrientes

    Pedaggicas

    UNIVERSIDAD CATLICA DETEMUCO

    FACULTAD DE EDUCACINPEDAGOGA EN EDUCACIN

    BSICA CON MENCINFUNDAMENTOS DE LAEDUCACIN BSICA

    ALUMNA: DANIELA

    MONTIEL SPROFESORA: M ELENA

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    Scrates

    Naci entre !" a #$a%C & 'a((eci e( a)* +$$a%C

    F,e e( -ri.er* en/acer -artici-e a(a(,.n* 0entr* 0e (ac(ase%

    S, .1t*0* se2asa2a en e( 0ia(*3*c*nstante c*n e(a-ren0i4%

    I.-(e.ent* (a.a&1,tica% Esta t1cnicase 2asa2a en rea(i4ar-re3,ntas a ,na-ers*na /asta 5,e esta

    0esc,2r6a c*nce-t*s5,e &a esta2aninc*r-*ra0*s en s,.ente7 -er* 5,ea-arente.ente esta2an*(8i0a0*s%

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    ILUMINISMO

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    PERSONA>ES DESTACADOS DELILUMINISMO

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    COMENIOMarc e( inici* 0e (a

    siste.ati4acin 0e (a-e0a3*36a & 0e (a0i0?ctica en Occi0ente%Un* 0e s,s (i2r*s .?sc*n*ci0*s es @Di0?cticaMa3na en 0*n0e -*neen t1r.in*s t*0as (as

    acci*nes e0,cati8as7 &8a 0es0e (a te*r6a0i0?ctica /asta (asc,esti*nes 0e (*c*ti0ian* en (as a,(as%C*.ni* eracristian*

    -r*testante7 (*c,a( /i4* -ensar& /acer 5,e (asesc,e(as n*8a&an 0e (a .an*c*n (a re(i3in%

    F,e e( -rinci-a( teric* 0e ,n.*0e(* 0e esc,e(a 5,e -r*-*n6a

    ense)ar @t*0* a t*0*s7 inc(,i0*sni)*s c*n 01cit * -r*2(e.as '6sic*s%

    C*nc(,6a 5,e (* .?si.-*rtante en (a 8i0an* era (a

    c*nte.-(acin sin* (aaccin7 e( @/acer%A0*-t* e( .1t*0*e.-6ric* 0e e

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    ROUSSEAUE( -rinci-i* ',n0a.enta( 0eR*,ssea, es 5,e e( /*.2re es

    2,en* -*r nat,ra(e4a7 -er*esta s*.eti0* a (a inH,enciac*rr,-t*ra 0e (a s*cie0a0% Un*0e (*s 'act*res 5,e i.-(ica (a'a((a en (a s*cie0a0 era (a0esi3,a(0a0%

    R*,ssea, -reten06a ((e8ar a (aes-ecie /,.ana /acia (a'e(ici0a0% Ta.2i1n ten6a (aintencin 0e -r*-iciar (a 'e(ici0a00e (*s ni)*s 0,rante (a in'ancia%

    Para R*,ssea,7 (*s ni)*s 0e26an sere0,ca0*s s*2re t*0* en (i2erta07 & 8i8irca0a 'ase 0e (a in'ancia en -(enit,0 0es,s senti0*s7 &a 5,e se3n e( /asta (*s (*s ni)*s s*(* s*n senti0*s7 e.*ci*nes

    & c,er-* '6sic*% La ra4n en ese ent*ncesa,n n* se '*r.a%

    Re-r*2a2a (*s.1t*0*s 0eense)an4a,ti(i4a0*s /astaese .*.ent*7 &a5,e se 2asa2an

    en (a re-eticin &.e.*ri4acin 0ec*nteni0*s7-re0ica2a s,s,stit,cin -*r (ae

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    PESTALOKKIAr.a2a 5,e (a

    ',ncin esencia( 0e(a ense)an4a era((e8an0* a (*s ni)*s

    a 0esarr*((ar s,s/a2i(i0a0es

    nat,ra(es innatas

    Para 1( (aesc,e(a i0ea(tenia 5,e serc*.* estar encasa -ara as6*'recer ,na

    at.*s'era 0ese3,ri0a0 &

    a'ect*%L*s ni)*s -ara Pesta(*44i7 se0esarr*((an 0es0e e( interi*r a(e

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    MONTESSORIEste .1t*0* e0,cati8* secaracteri4a -*r -*ner

    1n'asis en (a acti8i0a00iri3i0a -*r e( ni)* &*2ser8acin c(6nica -*r-arte 0e( -r*'es*r%

    Esta *2ser8acin tiene(a intencin 0e a0a-tare( ent*rn* 0ea-ren0i4aJe 0e( ni)* as, ni8e( 0e 0esarr*((*%

    E( -r*-sit* 2?sic* 0e este.1t*0* es (i2erar e(-*tencia( 0e ca0a ni)* -ara5,e se a,t*0esarr*((e en ,na.2iente estr,ct,ra0*% E(.1t*0* naci 0e (a i0ea 0e

    a&,0ar a( ni)* a *2tener ,n0esarr*((* inte3ra(7 -ara(*3rar ,n .?

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    Rea(is.*

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    9:,1 es e( rea(is.*;

    E( rea(is.* -e0a33ic* es -r*-,3na0*r 0e ,na e0,cacinesta2(eci0a en (* 5,e es e( c*n*cer (*s c*nteni0*s & (as-r?cticas% Se 2asa 2?sica.ente en (* 5,e es (a in0,ccin & (aint,icin c*.* (a 2ase 0e (*s sa2eres &a 5,e @E( 8a(*r-e0a33ic* 0e (as 0istintas 0isci-(inas '*r.a(es 0e-en0e

    -ri*ritaria.ente 0e s, a-(icacin -r?ctica a (a 8i0a%Se caracteri4a -*r i.-(e.entar e( .*0* 0e trans.itir (*sc*n*ci.ient*s en e( *r0en en 5,e 0e2er?n -resentar(*s *ense)ar(*s -ara (*3rar ,na .a&*r e'ecti8i0a0 a (a /*ra 0e ser,ti(i4a0*s%

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    TIPOS DE REALISMOSRea(is.* /,.anista

    Se caracteri4a -*r5,e s,sa,t*res 0ec(inan en ,nrea(is.* e0,cati8* 5,e7(eJ*s 0e (a -e0anter6a 0e(as -a(a2ras & (a si.-(ei.itacin 0e (*s c(?sic*s7-re-are a (*s /,.an*s

    -ara (a 8i0a en si%

    Rea(is.* s*cia(

    C*.* s, -r*-i* n*.2rein0ica7 esta ra.a 0e(

    rea(is.* 2asa (a e0,cacinen ',ncin 0e (a s*cie0a0%Re5,ieren ,na e0,cacin 5,e'*.ente (as acti8i0a0esnecesarias -ara 5,e e(e0,can0* c*n8i8a ens*cie0a0 -,es @(e 8er0a0era

    esc,e(a ser? %%% (a -r*-ias*cie0a0%

    Rea(is.* nat,ra(ista

    La (a2*r 0e( e0,ca0*r 0e2er? ser7 -araest*s rea(istas7 (a 0e a&,0ar a( e0,can0* a'*r.ar s, -r*-ia -ers*na(i0a0 si3,ien0*(as (e&es 0e( 0esarr*((* nat,ra(%

    Rea(is.* 0isci-(inari*

    Se critica e( .e.*ris.* en -r*0e ,na e0,cacin 5,e -er.ita a(

    e0,can0* asi.i(ar c,a(5,ierciencia% P*r (* tant*7 e( 8a(*r 0e(a -e0a3*36a ser? .e0i2(e en',ncin 0e (a -re-aracin 5,e*'re4ca 0e( e0,can0*%

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    PERSONA>ES DESTACADOS DELREALISMO

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    Aristte(es

    Para Aristte(es e(

    c*n*ci.ient* es,na re-r*0,ccin0e (a rea(i0a0%Para Aristte(es (ainte(i3encia 0e(/*.2re est?

    0*ta0a 0e ,naca-aci0a0 3ran0e0e ((e3ar /asta (asc*sas & *2tener 0ee((a (*s c*nteni0*s0e( c*n*ci.ient*%

    Aristte(es e

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    DescartesE( a-*rte 0e

    0escartes en (*5,e es -e0a3*36aes (a e

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    IDEALISMO

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    Siste.a (*sc* 5,e c*nsi0era a (a i0ea c*.* -ri.era & nicarea(i0a0 esencia(% La esencia 0e( ser es (a i0ea7 e( .,n0* 0e (a.ateria es ,na i(,sin7 es ,na .ani'estacin 0e (a i0ea * 0e(-ensa.ient*%E( i0ea(is.* ta.2i1n es (a te*r6a 0e (a Rea(i0a0 & 0e( c*n*ci.ient* e(c,a( atri2,&e ,n -a-e( c(a8e a (a .ente en (a estr,ct,ra 0e( .,n0*

    -erci2i0*% Es c*n*ci0* ta.2i1n c*.* (a *-*sicin 0e( .ateria(is.* &5,e 0e (a .is.a .anera s*stiene 5,e (a rea(i0a0 e

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    PERSONA>ES DESTACADOS DELIDEALISMO

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    PLATN Q IDEALISMO ONTOLGICO%

    P(atn -*see ,nac*s.*8isini0ea(ista 0e (a

    rea(i0a0 0ice 5,e(a e

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    EGEL W ANT Q IDEALISMO TRANSCENDENTAL

    &$ e3e( n* n*s -r*-*nenin3n -(an 3enera( 0ere*r3ani4acin 0e (aense)an4a7 -er* /ace ,nest,0i* s*2re (as

    instit,ci*nes e

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    CONSTRUCTIVISMO

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    En -e0a3*36a se 0en*.ina c*nstr,cti8is.* a ,na c*rriente 5,ear.a 5,e e( c*n*ci.ient* 0e t*0as (as c*sas es ,n -r*ces* .enta(0e( in0i8i0,*7 5,e se 0esarr*((a 0e .anera interna c*n'*r.e e(in0i8i0,* *2tiene in'*r.acin e interacta c*n s, ent*rn*%se3n e( c*nstr,cti8is.* e( c*n*ci.ient* n* es ,na c*-ia 0e (area(i0a0 sin* ,na c*nstr,ccin% E( a-ren0i4aJe es ,n -r*ces* .enta(

    en e( c,a( e( est,0iante 3enera c*n*ci.ient*s a -artir 0e s,s -r*-iase

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    PERSONA>ES DESTACADOS DELCONSTRUCTIVISMO

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    Pia3etLa Pe0a3*36a Pia3etianase c*ns*(i0a en (a

    e

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    i

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    Vi3*ts&Para Vi3*ts&7 e( *2Jeti8*3enera( 0e (a e0,cacin

    /a2r6a 0e ser e( 0e -*tenciaresa 4*na 0e 0esarr*((*-r

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    B

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    Br,ner

    E( esta0*,ni0ense>er*.e S% Br,ner7est,0i7 en ,n-rinci-i*7 (a re(acin 0e(a -e0a3*36a s*cia( c*n(a -erce-cin7 & s,s*2ser8aci*nes a(

    res-ect* /an si0* .,&0i',n0i0as%

    Br,ner 0ice 5,e e(a-ren0i4aJe 0e-en0e

    0e estr,ct,ras inicia(es5,e se .*0icanc*nstante.ente en s,-as* /acia ',t,r*sa-ren0i4aJes 0e .a&*rc*.-(icacin%

    Las estr,ct,rasc*3n*sciti8as s*n

    res,(ta0* 0e-r*ces*s 3en1tic*s &c*nstit,&en.ecanis.*sre3,(a0*res ca-aces0e s,2*r0inar (asinH,encias

    -r*ce0entes 0e(.e0i*%

    E( c*n*ci.ient* es,n -r*ces*s,2Jeti8* 5,ea05,iere 0i.ensinen re-resentacin0e (a rea(i0a07 as6c*.* en (a

    c*nstr,ccin 0einstr,.ent*s -ara(a a05,isicin 0en,e8*sc*n*ci.ient*s%

    Naci e( 0e *ct,2re 0e $ & 'a((eci e( #0e J,ni* 0e "#

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    PERSONA>ES DESTACADOS DELACTIVISMO

    DEZEW

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    DEZEWDe[e& secaracteri4* -*rtener

    -ensa.ient*ra0ica(7 &se)a(a2a 5,e (ae0,cacin0e26a sercient6ca

    La 2ase 0e s, te*r6aes antr*-*(3ica &-sic*(3ica7

    c*nsi0era2a a (a8i0a c*.* (a ra4n

    0e 8er 0e( ser/,.an* en (a

    s*cie0a0 (ae0,cacin -er.itea05,irir 0i8ers*sa-ren0i4aJes a

    tra81s 0e (ae

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    EL MXTODO DE DECROLW

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    EL MXTODO DE DECROLW

    S,r3i si.,(t?nea.ente c*n e( 0e M*ntess*ri% B?sica.enteeste .1t*0* /a2(a 0e (a acti8i0a0 3r,-a( e in0i8i0,a( 0e (*sni)*s7 r*.-ien0* e( -r*3ra.a esc*(ar &a 5,e es ,na i0ea3(*2a(i4a0a 0e (a 8i0a an6.ica -,es se ac*.*0an a( centr*0e inter1s e i0eas as*cia0as%

    Ta.2i1n en este senti0* s, c*nce-cin 0e (a (ect,rai0e*8is,a( 7 5,e -arte 0e (as 'rases & -a(a2ras en 8e4 0e (ass6(a2as & .1t*0*s *r0inari*s % Fina(.ente /a& 5,e se)a(aren e( (a i.-*rtancia 5,e 0a e( a.2iente7 tant* 0entr* c*.*',era 0e (a esc,e(a 7 acent,an0* (a necesi0a0 0e ,n .e0i*nat,ra(%

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    LIBERALISMO

    9: 1 ( (i2 (i ;

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    9:,1 es e( (i2era(is.*;

    Es a ra4n 0e (*s a2,s*s & .a(as 3esti*nes 5,e *casi*na e(-*0er c*ncentra0* en ,na s*(a -ers*na * ente7 5,e /ace 5,e(a .asa 3eneraci*na( se 8,e(5,e en c*ntra 0e e((a & rena4ca,na n,e8a '*r.a 0e /acer (as c*sas7 ,na n,e8a '*r.a 0ec*ntr*( & -*0er -*(6tic*%E( in0i8i0,a(is.*7 5,e c*nsi0era a( in0i8i0,* -ri.*r0ia(7 c*.*

    -ers*na nica & en eJercici* 0e s, -(ena (i2erta07 -*r enci.a0e t*0* as-ect* c*(ecti8*%

    La c*rriente Li2era( nace en *-*isic*n a( *2s*(,tis.* &0es-*tis.*%

    FREIRE

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    FREIRE

    Pa,(* Freire -(antea tresa-*rtes a (a -e0a3*36a=- Un -a-e( -r*ta3nic* 0e(

    e0,can0*%- La in8esti3acin

    -artici-ati8a%-

    La c*nce-cin.et*0*(3ica 0ia(1ctica

    E( *2Jeti8* 0e (a e0,cacinera trans'*r.ar e( .,n0* atra81s 0e (a a('a2eti4acin

    -ara 5,e e( *-ri.i0* -,e0aenc*ntrarse c*.* s,Jet*-r*-i* 0e ,n 0estin*/istric*%

    Freire -(antea 5,e es(a rea(i0a0 0e(in0i8i0,*7 e( c*nte

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    Bi2(i*3ra'6a

    /tt-=\\i(,.inis.*&e0,caci*n%2(*3s-*t%c( \ /tt-=\\.*0e(*s-e0a3*3ic*s%[e2n*0e%c*.

    %c*\.*0e(*-e0acti8ista

    \ /tt-=\\

    /t.(%rinc*n0e(8a3*%c*.\te*rias-e0a3*3icas%/t.(

    /tt-s=\\2**s%3**3(e%c(\2**s\a2*,t\Gran0es]-ensa0*res%/t.(;i0^