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    1.

    2.

    3.

    4.

    5.

    6.

    2

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    1.

    :

    -

    -

    -

    1.1.

    ..

    =

    .

    1.1.1.

    .

    :

    x+3=10

    x =10-3

    x =7

    :

    U+U1=U2

    U =U2-U1

    .

    :

    x-5=3

    x =3+5

    x =8

    :

    I-I1=I2

    I =I2+I1

    3

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    :

    x+3=50 x-3=50 U+15=18 U-70=30 I+8=10 I-5=50

    = = = = = =

    = = = = = =

    .

    :

    2x=6

    x=2

    6

    x=3

    :

    RI=U

    R=I

    U

    54

    =x

    x=5*4

    x=20

    :

    UI

    P=

    P=UI

    4

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    :

    10x=30 3

    8

    =x

    3R=U 2I=U UP

    =

    2

    6=

    U

    P

    x= x= R= I= P= P=

    x= x= R= I= P= P=

    U=6

    :

    : :

    x

    2

    =16

    x= 16

    x=16 21

    x=(4 12

    ) 21

    x=4

    x

    3

    =8

    x= 3 8

    x=8 31

    x=(2*22) 31

    x=(21+2) 31

    x=2

    U

    2

    =PR

    U= 2 PR

    U=(PR) 21

    I2=RP

    I2= 2R

    P

    5

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    : P=20 R=5

    x2=4 x3=27 U2=PR I2=P/R

    x= 2 x= 3 U= I=

    x=( ) x=( ) U= I=

    x= x= U= I=

    .

    72

    =x

    x=72

    x=

    53

    =x

    x=53

    x=

    IR

    P=2

    2I

    R

    P=

    UPR =2

    PR=U2

    6

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    : R=2,

    I=3 U=4.

    62

    =x 43 =x IR

    P=2 UPR =

    2

    x= x= =R

    PPR=

    x= x= P= P=

    P= P=

    7

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    1.1.2.

    , :

    :

    :

    2+x+(x-1)=2+x+x-1=1+2x

    :

    U1+(U1-U3)=U1+U1-U3=2U1-U3

    :

    2+2x-(x-1)=2+2x-x+1=3+x

    :

    2U1-(U1-U3)=2U1-U1+U3=U1+U3

    :

    (+)(+)=(+) (+)(-)=(-) (-)(+)=(-) (-)(-)=(+)

    :

    (3+x)(2-y)=(3)(2)-3y+x2-xy=6-3y+2x-xy

    :

    (I1-I2)(R1+R2)=I1R1+I1R2-I2R1-I2R2

    :

    :

    4x+4y=4(x+y)

    :

    IR1+IR2=I(R1+R2)

    , .

    8

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    :

    x+[4-(3-y)]=x+(4-3+y)=x+(1+y)=x+1+y

    :

    U1+[U2-(U3-U4)]=U1+(U2-U3+U4)=U1+U2-U3+U4

    :

    1. (10x-5y)-(4x-3y)=

    2. 2x(3y+4)=

    3. (2x+3y)(4z-5s)=

    4. 2x+x+4x+5x=

    5. 5y+3y+6z-4z=

    6. 8t+12u-t-15u=

    7 9d-15e+4d+5e=

    8. x-y+z+y=

    9. 15x+13x-37x=

    10. 10c-16e+3c+3e=

    11. 30p+45k-18p-17k=

    12. 170a-40b-7a-35b=

    13. 66a+40b-15a+8a+24b-21b=

    14. 15.5k+330.2-12.2k+23.3=

    9

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    :

    a 9a+3c-6b-6c+4a+9b=

    b 30a+17b-5c+12a-31b+19c=

    c 300m+434p-324n-78m+189n-137p=

    d 185.2p+124.2x-289.2r-76.4x-120.3p+314.7r=

    e 460m+840s+780y+550m-1100y-230s=

    :

    a (7a-4b)-(3a+6b)=

    b (16x-9y)+(4y-8x)-(7x-6y)=

    :

    a 340.785= b 534. 0.04=

    c 63.7.78.7= d 0.29.0.01789=

    :

    a 3a.4b= b 7c.8d.2=

    c 5e.4.3f.2= d 7a.3c.2a=

    10

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    e 3x.4y.5z= f 22n.2p.4.2q=

    :

    a 5(3+4)= b 2(3a+4b-5c)=

    c 3a(4b+3-2b)= d (3y+8x-25x)5x=

    e -3y(2a+3b-4c)= f (4a-5b+6c)(-x)=

    :

    a (a+b)(a+b)= b (a+b)(a-b)=

    c (a+b)(a-2b)= d (2a+3b)(4a+5b)

    e (3a-4x)(5+2c)= f (5u-3v)(4x-2v)=

    .

    a 3.4+2.5= b 3(4+2.5)=

    c 25(1+0.004.70)= d 5b(12c)3c.7)=

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    .

    a 5a.4+3.5.5a= b 5b.3a+4a.2.5b=

    c x.6y+3.25y.2x= d a(-3b)+4b(-2a)-5a(-b)=

    :

    a 56.9:23= b 3697.1:92.5=

    c 417:0.17= d 0.815:0.0178=

    :

    a

    3

    917 yx =

    b=

    g

    eg

    24

    412

    c

    97x

    1821

    yx=

    d

    azb

    zaxab

    4515

    9835

    12

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    1.2. ( )

    (, , , .....),

    .

    .

    .

    E

    1 000 000 000 000 1012 T 1012=1

    1 000 000 000 109 G 109Hz=1GHz

    1 000 000 106 M 106W=1MW

    1 000 103 k 103g=1kg

    1 00 102 h 102l=1hl

    1 0 101 da

    1 100

    0,1=1/10 10-1 d 10-1m=1dm

    0,01=1/100 10-2 c 10-2m=1cm

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    0, 001=1/1 000 10-3 m 10-3H=1mH

    0, 000 001=1/1 000 000 10-6 10-6F=1F

    0, 000 000 001=1/1 000 000 001 10-9 n 10-9A=1nA

    0, 000 000 000 001 10-12 p 10-12F=1pF

    0, 000 000 000 000 001 10-15 f 10-15H=1fH

    0, 000 000 000 000 000 001 10-18 a 10-12C=1aC

    :

    1. 200mV. .

    200mV=200.10-3V=200/1000V=0,2V

    2. 3V .

    3V=3.103mV=3 000mV

    3V=3.106V=3 000 000 V

    3. 32k?

    32=32.103=32 000

    4. 342000 M. 34200=342000.10-

    6 M=0,342

    5. 18,8 F F.

    18,8 F=18,8.10-6 F=0,0000188 F

    6. 10.

    14

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    56 000=

    2 500 000=

    0.014=

    0.000078

    7. :

    4.3.103= 4.2.10-6=

    3.103.4.103= 7.10-6.3.10-3=

    7.3.106.5.10-3= 8.3.102.2.10-5=

    8. .

    0.00012T= 0.00034GHz= 0.032MW=

    0.1hl= 32dm= 567cm=

    30040F= 900000pF= 1000000fH=

    0.56k= 800mH= 4000000000aC=

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    9. :

    3kV 10mV 220V 0.6V 380kV 520mV

    V V kV mV V V

    10. :

    75mA 0.32A 600A 0.8mA 900A 0.9kA

    A mA kA A mA A

    11. :

    100m 1.5 220 3.3k 470k 6.8M

    m k M k

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    1.3.

    . : .

    :

    - 10-2 %10

    - 10-1 %5

    0 100 -

    1 101 %1

    2 102 %2

    3 103 -

    4 104 -

    5 105 %5.0

    17

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    6 106 %25.0

    7 107 %1.0

    8 108 -

    9 109 -

    - - %20

    .

    :

    .

    .

    20%.

    1:

    ?

    18

    a)

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    a) 2 7 100 %5 R=27 5%

    b) 6 8 104 %10 R=680k 10%

    2:

    R = 39k 5%.

    = 3 =

    = 9 =

    = 103 =

    = %5 =

    .

    ,

    .

    19

    b)

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    2% 2%

    .

    20

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    3:

    .

    a) 4 0 2 102 %2 R= 40.2 2%

    b) 7 1 5 100 %5.0 R= 715 0.5%

    21

    a)

    b)

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    2.

    . ..

    .

    =9 1

    l =9 1m

    l=9 .1m=9m

    U=220 .1V=220V

    2.1.

    .

    .

    :

    1) 11V 10V,

    1V.

    Uiz=11V, Uv=10V, GA=11V-10V=1V

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    2) GA=9V-10V=-1V

    3) Uiz=101V, Uv=100V, GA=101V-100V=1V

    . .

    = /

    GR=GA/

    :

    GR%= GR.100

    : ?

    3) Uiz=11V, Uv=10V, GR=v

    viz

    UUU =

    v

    A

    UG = 1.0

    10

    1 =VV GR%=GR

    .100=0.1.100=10%

    4) Uiz=9V, Uv=10V, GR=v

    viz

    U

    UU =

    v

    A

    U

    G= 1.010

    1=

    V

    VGR%=GR

    .100=-0.1.100=-10%

    5) Uiz=101V, Uv=100V, GR=v

    viz

    U

    UU

    =v

    A

    U

    G

    = 01.0100

    1

    =V

    VGR%=GR.100=0.01.100=1%

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    :

    . 11 80.1 23.3 12.25 0.222

    . 12,5 80 24 12.3 0.23

    .

    . .

    24

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    2.2.

    .

    .

    .

    :

    ( - )max/( ).100

    %1.0 0.1.

    .

    .. . %1.0 %2.0 %5.0 %1 %5.1 %5.2 %5

    0.1 0.2 0.5 1 1.5 2.5 5

    25

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    3.

    3.1.

    3.1.1 :

    1) L P a=5m:

    a) L=a+a+a+a=4a=4.5m=20m

    ) P=a.a=a2=5m.5m=52m.m=25m2

    26

    1m

    a=5m

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    a=3m a=4cm a=6mm 0.7mm

    L= L= L= L=

    P= P= P= P=

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    3.1.2

    1) : =3m, =4m.

    L=a+b+a+b=2a+2b=2(a+b)

    L=2(4m+3m)=2.7m=14m

    P=a.b=4m.3m=12m2

    2) :

    =3, =2 a=4cm, b=5cm a=2mm, b=5mm a=0.2m, b=0.4m

    28

    a=4m

    b=3m

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    3.1.3 .

    1) r=3m !

    L=2r

    =3.14

    L=2.3m.3.14=18.85m

    P=r2=(3m)2=9 m2= 28.27m2

    2) :

    r=2m r=4cm r=6mm r=0.7mm

    L L= L= L= L=

    P P= P= P= P=

    29

    r

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    3) r1=2m r2=4m.

    P=P2-P1

    P2=(r2)2

    P1=(r1)2

    P=(r2)2(r1)2=[ (r2)2-(r1)2]

    P=[(4m)2-(2m)2]=[16m2-4m2]=12m2

    P=50,26m2

    r 2=3, r1=2 r 2=5cm, r1=4cm r 2=5mm, r1=2mm r 2=0.4m, r1=0.2m

    P= P= P= P=

    30

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    3.2.

    .

    .

    . .

    1m,

    1mm2 200 C.

    :

    221

    1

    11

    1

    11

    1

    1

    mm

    mS

    mm

    m

    mmA

    V

    m=

    =

    :

    G=/l

    l .

    .

    .=1/ . :

    31

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    Sm

    mm

    m

    mm

    m

    mmA

    V

    11

    1

    1

    11

    1

    11

    122

    2

    =

    =

    :

    R=l/S

    :

    [2mm

    m

    ] [

    m

    mm2]

    62 0.0161

    56 0.0179

    36 0.02826

    11.5 0.087

    8 0.12

    2 0.5

    .

    32

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    :

    1) 200m =2.5mm2.

    .

    R==

    =

    8.25.2

    4000176.02

    2

    2

    mm

    mm

    mm

    A

    l

    2) b ,

    l=18cm h=35m R=0.1.

    A= 2

    2

    00317.01.0

    18.00176.0

    mmm

    m

    m

    mm

    Rl =

    =

    A=b.h h=A/b=0.00317mm2/35m=0.00317mm2/35.10-3mm=0.9mm

    3) d=0.3mm 76m. .

    =r2=(d/2)2= d2/4=( 0.3mm)2/4=0.0707mm2

    33

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    R==

    =

    5270707.0

    7649.0

    2

    2

    mm

    mm

    mm

    A

    l

    4) =1.5mm2 100m.

    5) 10 .

    =1.1m

    mm2 d=1.6mm.

    6) 25mm2. 3.6km. .

    7) 0.4mm. 2m 6.7. .

    8) 5mm. 300m.

    9) r1=4mm,

    2mm. 200m.

    10) 133.

    (CuMn 12 Ni) (=0.43m

    mm2) 0.2mm .

    .

    11) - 14 , 2mm 7 (=8) , 2.4mm. 1km .

    34

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    4.

    4.1

    :

    .

    , .

    .

    I=R

    U

    :

    1) 300 42 V. .

    I=U/R=42V/300=0.14A=140mA

    2) 40 220V. .

    3) (220V/2W) 24.2. .

    4) 2.2k 9.6 V. .

    I=U/R

    :

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    R=I

    U

    .

    . .

    :

    1) 60W- 273mA, 220V. .

    2) : (6V/0.3).

    .

    3) (NTC):

    U1=30V, I1=2,1mA

    U2=52V, I2=4,7mA

    :

    R1= R2=

    :

    U=IR

    .

    :

    1) I=410 R=8.2k. ?

    U=IR=410A.8.2k=410.10-6A.8.2.103=3.36V

    2) 11mA 1.8k . .

    3) 3mA. .

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    G.

    .

    :

    G=1/R

    1/ S ().

    :

    1) G 1.

    G=1/103 [1/]=103

    S=1mS

    2) :

    U 225V 42V V 8V 220V V 1.6V

    I A 1.38A 4.5A A 610mA 0.15A A

    R 25 900m

    G S S 200mS S mS 6.25mS 7.3mS

    37

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    4.2

    :

    .

    . . .

    x- ()

    y- ()

    38

    y

    P3(-2;-1.5)

    P2

    (-3;1)

    P4(1;-3)

    P1(1;2)

    -

    -2

    -3

    3

    2

    1

    -4 -3 -2 -1 1 2 3 4 5 x

    1-

    4-

    2-

    3-

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    :

    : y=2x+3

    a) y.

    )

    a)

    x, y

    .

    x +2 +1 0 -1 -2

    y +7 +5 +3 +1 -1

    b)

    .

    39

    y

    -

    -4

    -6

    6

    4

    2

    -8 -6 -4 -2 2 4 6 8 10 x

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    y .

    :

    y=f(x) (y )

    , , .

    :

    y=kx+n

    k . .

    n y .

    :

    1) y=x+1

    a)

    b) .

    c) ()

    2) y=2x+1

    a)

    b) .

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    c) ()

    x +2 +1 0 -1 -2 k

    y=x+1

    y=2x+1

    41

    y

    -

    -4

    -6

    6

    4

    2

    -8 -6 -4 -2 2 4 6 8 10 x

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    -

    I U

    R. ,

    .

    I=R

    U= R

    1U

    , .

    :

    I=f(U)

    .

    U I

    .

    .

    . R=10:

    U 0V 2V 4V 6V k

    I= U10

    10A 0.2A 0.4A 0.6A 0.1

    I=f(U)

    I-U R=10

    42

    1

    0.8

    0.6

    0.4

    0.2

    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

    U

    I

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    I=f(U) R=const. . -

    .

    43

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    :

    1) : R=500, R=1k, R=2k, R=4k;

    )

    )

    .

    U(V) 4V 8V 12V k

    I(mA)R=500

    I(mA)R=1k

    I(mA)R=2k

    I(mA)R=4k

    .

    .

    :

    U

    I

    R=1k :

    V

    A

    V

    mA

    U

    I 3101

    4

    4 ==

    =10-3S

    44

    U

    I

    0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 U(V)

    14

    12

    10

    8

    6

    4

    2

    I(mA)

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    2)

    225V 42V V 8V 220V V 1.6V

    A 1.38A 4.5A A 610mA 0.15A A

    25 900m

    S S 200mS S mS 6.25mS 7.3S

    45

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    5.

    5.1.

    1 .

    .1.

    . 2.

    .

    I1=U/R1

    I2=U/R2

    .

    I=I1+I2

    R.

    R=U/I

    .

    46

    I

    I2

    R2

    R1

    I1

    U

    I

    RU

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    1:

    U=12V, R1=1.2k

    R2=680. I1 I2, I R .

    I1=U/R1=12V/1,2.103=10 .10-3A=10mA

    I2=U/R2=12V/680=0.0176A=17,6mA

    I=I1+I2=10mA+17,6mA=27,6mA

    R=U/I=12V/27,6.10-3A=435.

    :

    I=I1+I2

    U/R=U/R1+U/R2

    U

    1/R=1/R1+1/R2

    R=

    21

    11

    1

    RR+

    2:

    47

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    .

    R==

    +

    21

    11

    1

    RR

    =

    +

    33

    1068.0

    1

    102.1

    1

    1

    435

    G=1/R

    .

    G=G1+G2

    3:

    :

    G1=1/R1=1/1,2.103=0.83 .10-3 S

    G2=1/R2=1/0,68.103=1.47.10-3 S

    G=G1+G2=2.3

    .

    10

    -3

    .

    48

    U

    I=I1+I2

    G=G1+G2

    1/R=1/R1+1/R2

    R=21

    21

    RR

    RR

    +

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    5.2.

    3 .

    3)

    .

    .

    .

    49

    In

    I2

    I

    R2

    R1

    I1

    U R3 Rn

    I3

    U

    I=I1+I2+I3+ +In

    G=G1+G2+G3+ +Gn

    1/R=1/R 1+1/R2+ +1/Rn

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    1.

    : R1=12k, R2=1.2k, R3=2.7k,

    R4=680, R5=470, U=100V.

    :

    ) a

    )

    )

    )

    )1/R=1/R1+1/R2+1/R3+1/R4+1/R5=

    =

    +

    +

    +

    +

    110885.4

    1047.01

    1

    1068.0

    1

    107.2

    1

    102.1

    1

    1012

    1 333333

    R=

    110885.4

    1

    3 =205

    ) G=G1+G2+G3+G4+G5=4.885.10-3S

    ) I=

    =

    205

    100

    R

    U

    ) I1= mAV

    R

    U3.8

    12000

    100

    1

    =

    = I2= mAV

    R

    U3.83

    1200

    100

    2

    =

    =

    50

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    I3= mAV

    R

    U37

    2700

    100

    3

    =

    = I4= mAV

    R

    U147

    680

    100

    4

    =

    =

    I5= mAVRU 213

    470

    100

    5

    =

    =

    : I=I1+I2+I3+I4+I5=488.6mA

    2.

    R1=30, R2=60, R3=20, . 60V. :

    )

    )

    )

    )

    3.

    R1 R2, . :

    )

    )

    4.

    R1=36, R2=48, R3=60, . :

    )

    51

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    )

    5.

    40.

    60 . .

    6.

    . 2.6.

    R1=8k R2=10k. R3.

    7.

    60 120 .

    220 V. :

    )

    )

    )

    )

    8.

    R1=50M, R2=800k, R3=4.8M, . 24V. :

    )

    )

    )

    52

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    )

    9.

    R1=250, R2=120, R3=80, . 300. :

    )

    )

    )

    53

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    5.3.

    . , :

    .

    , :

    4 .

    .

    4.

    1 4 :

    I

    I1, I2 I3

    54

    I2

    I

    R2

    R1

    I1

    U R3

    I3

    2

    1

    I2

    I

    R2

    R1

    I1

    U R3

    I3

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    2:

    I1, I2 I3

    I

    : I=I1+I2+I3

    :

    I1=100mA I2=200mA I3, I4, I5

    . I4 I3=50mA I5=80mA.

    I1+I2=I3+I4+I5

    I4=I1+I2-I4-I5

    I4=100mA+200mA-50mA-80mA=170mA

    :

    . I1=1000mA, I3=100mA, I4=500mA

    I5=700mA. I2.

    5.

    55

    I3

    I4

    I5

    I2I1

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    I1=I2+I3+I4+I5

    I2=I1-I3-I4-I5=

    =100mA-100mA-500mA-700mA=-300mA

    I2 e .

    .

    56

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    5.4.

    6 .

    . 6.

    :

    U1=IR1

    U2=IR2

    U

    U1 U2 :

    U=U1+U2

    :

    6 R1=1k, R2=470. 10V R1. I, U2

    U.

    I=U/R1=10V/(103)=10.10-3A=10mA

    U2=IR2=10-2A.470=4.7V

    U=U1+U2=10V+4.7V=14.7V

    57

    I

    R2

    R1

    U

    U1

    U2

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    .

    R=21

    21RR

    I

    UU

    I

    U+=

    +=

    .

    :

    .

    R=R1+R2=1000+470=1470

    58

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    5.5.

    .

    .

    .

    59

    I

    R2

    R1

    U

    U1

    U2

    U3

    Un

    R3

    Rn

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    1:

    5 R1=12k, R2=1.2k, R3=2.7k, R4=680,

    R5=470. U=100V.

    :

    ) R

    ) I

    ) U1, U2, U3, U4 U5,

    ) R=R1+ R2+ R3+ R4+ R5=1.2k+1.2k+2.7k+0.680k+0.470k=6.25k.

    ) I=U/R=100V/6.25.103=16.10-3A=16mA

    ) U1=IR1=19.2V

    U2=IR2=19.2V

    U3=IR3=43.2V

    U4=IR4=10.88V

    U5=IR5=7.52V

    60

    U=U1+U2+.Un

    I

    R=R1+R2+R3+ +Rn

    1/G=1/G1+1/G2+

    +1/Gn

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    2.

    R1=8, R2=4 , R3=12 . 48V. :

    )

    )

    )

    3.

    6 . R2, R1=800 , a R3=400 .

    4.

    220V R1=250, R2=500 . :

    )

    )

    )

    5.

    300 . R1=80 ,

    R3=180 200mA :

    )

    ) R2

    )

    61

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    62

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    5.6.

    :

    ,

    .

    n

    .

    U1 U2 U.

    U=U1+U2

    .

    .

    U1+U2=UR1+UR2+UR3+.+URn

    :

    U1+U2+.Un=UR1+UR2+.+URn

    .

    63

    I

    R2

    R1

    U1

    UR1

    UR2

    UR3

    URn

    R3

    Rn

    U2

    U

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    :

    : U1=10V, U2=5V, UR1=3V, UR3=10V,

    UR2 ?

    U1+U2=UR1+UR2+UR3

    UR2 = U1+U2 -UR1- UR3

    UR2=10V+5V-3V-10V=2V

    64

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    5.7.

    . .

    M

    2

    1

    2

    1

    R

    R

    U

    U=

    .

    65

    U2=U

    out

    I

    R2

    R1

    Uin

    U1

    R2

    I

    R2

    R1

    Uout1

    Uout2

    Uout3

    R3

    R4

    Uin

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    21

    2

    RR

    R

    U

    U

    in

    out

    +=

    .

    Uout=Uin 21

    2

    RR

    R

    +

    .

    R1 R2,

    R3. R1 R2 R2. R2 R2. :

    Uout=Uin2'

    1

    2'

    RR

    R

    +

    66

    R3U

    2

    =Uout

    I

    R2

    R1

    Uin

    U1

    U2=U

    out

    I

    R2

    R1

    Uin

    U1

    R2

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    :

    Uin=60V R1=100

    R2=10. O R3=80. :

    ) U2

    ) U2

    :

    a) U2=Uin21

    2

    RR

    R

    +

    =60V+

    10100

    10

    =5.45V

    ) R2==

    +

    =

    +89.8

    8010

    8010

    32

    32

    RR

    RR

    U2=Uin2'

    1

    2'

    RR

    R

    +

    =4.9V

    :

    1) R1=100 R2=50 . 20V. U2.

    2) R1=22k R2=10k . 220V.

    a)

    )

    67

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    3) R=300 .

    12 2.5V. R1 R2

    4) 24V 6V. .

    R1 1.8k. .

    5) : R1:R2=3:7.

    Uin:U2

    6) Uin=6V R1=560 R2=220.

    a) U2 .

    ) R3=180. U2.

    68

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    5.8.

    P

    , :

    P=UI

    W-

    .

    .

    P=UI=RI.I=RI2

    P=UI=U(U/I)=U2/R

    :

    : 1.5k/0.08A.

    .

    :

    P=UI=RI.I=RI2=1500.(0.08)2=9.6W

    :

    1)

    . 220

    .

    I 10A 16A 20A 25A 35A 50A

    P W W W W W W

    69

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    2)

    220 .

    I A A A A A A

    P 25W 40W 60W 75W 100W 150W

    3) 220 1k. .

    4) 220 1W .

    .

    5) 1.6M 3.2mA

    6) .

    R 560 680k 4.7M 22k 15 3.3k

    P 3W 1/2W 1/4W 1W 2W 1/10W

    I(A)

    7) 200W//6.6A.

    .

    70

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    6.

    6.1.

    . .

    . :

    y=2x+3 .

    .

    . :,

    .

    .

    .

    P=RI2

    .

    71

    y

    -

    -4

    -6

    6

    4

    2

    -8 -6 -4 -2 2 4 6 8 10 x

  • 7/31/2019 el_teh pres

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    a : y = a x2

    .

    =1

    y=x2.

    x

    y

    , .

    x 1 2 3 4

    y 1 4 9 16

    72

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    :

    y=1/x

    , .

    x -2 -1 0 1 2 4

    y -0.5 -1 1 0.5 0.25

    y=ax.

    73

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    :

    y=2x

    x -2 -1 0 1 2 4

    y -0.25 -0.5 1 2 4 8

    74

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    y=logax.

    :

    y=log 2x

    x 0 1 2 4 8

    y - 0 1 2 3

    6.2.

    .

    .

    0.1, 1, 10 100. .

    .

    75

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    0.1 1 10 100 1000 10000

    10-1 100 101 102 103 104

    0.1 1 10 100 1000 10000

    .

    :

    10 cm 1

    10 . 2.

    : 2 : 0.30103

    .

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

    . cm 0 3.0 4.8 6.0 6.9 7.8 8.5 9.0 9.5 10

    76

    log

    log

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    x- y- .

    .

    x y

    lin-lin

    log-lin

    lin-log

    log-log

    .

    lin-log .

    77

    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

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    100

    .

    R= 4.10-1k = 400

    78

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    - .

    :

    500 lux.

    :

    R=200

    79

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    NTC-.

    .

    :

    NTC 33, 140 .

    :

    2.

    81

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    NTC .

    :

    10W .

    ( 100mW 1W)

    .

    :

    12mA 30V. .

    R=U/I=30V/10mA=3k

    50mA 20V.

    :

    R=U/I=20V/50mA=0.4k

    82

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    83

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    .

    84

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    PTC-

    PTC - .

    .

    PTC

    85

    PTC

    .

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    .

    LDR-

    LDR .

    . .

    86

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    87

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    1. Technical mathematics for the electric trade.

    GTZ

    2. Electrotechnical Fundamentals of Electronics

    GTZ