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    Dictionary Techincal: Chemistry English-English

    DICTIONARYCHEMISTRY

    A B C D E F GH I K L M N O P Q R S U

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    A Absolute Error, The difference between the approximate and exact value in anycalculation.Accuracy, In measurement indicates that a set of measurements are close to the trueanswer, though they are not necessarily precise.Acid, Compounds that contain hydrogen (H #1) and when dissolved in water (H2O),they increase the concentration of hydrogen ions, H+ (hydronium ions H3O+). Acids are proton donors. Substances with a pH less than 7 are considered to be acidic.Actinides, The fourteen elements in the bottom row of the inner-transition elements ofthe periodic table that follow the element actinium (Ac #89). Some reference sourcesinclude actinium in this series others do not. For these elements the 5f orbital is thefilling orbital. This series is a sub-series of the transition metals.Alkali Earth Metal (Alkaline-Earth Metals) , Elements in the second column (fromthe left) of the periodic table all fall into this series. These elements are in general white,differing by shades of color or casts; they are malleable, extrudable and machinable.These elements may be made into rods, wire or plate. Also, these elements are lessreactive than the alkali metals and have higher melting points and boiling points.Alkali Metal, A metal in the first column of the periodic table (i.e., lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, cesium and francium). With the exception of francium, thesemetals are all soft and silvery. They may be readily fused and volatilized with theirmelting and boiling points becoming lower with increasing atomic mass. They are thestrongest electropositive metals. These elements react vigorously, even violently withwater.Alpha Particle, Consists of the nucleus of an atom of helium (two protons and twoneutrons) and is sometimes emitted from the nucleus of some atoms as part of thoseatoms' radioactive decay. Alpha particles have an energy range of 4-8 MeV. This energyis dissipated in only a few centimeters of air or less than 0.005mm of aluminum (Al).ngstrom (), One ten-billionth of a meter (10-10m or 0.0000000001 m) or 1/10th of ananometer.Angular Momentum Quantum Number , See azimuthal quantum number

    Anion, A negatively charged ion.Antimatter (antiparticle) , Species of subatomic particles that have the same mass andspin as normal particles, however, they have opposite electrical charges from theirnormal matter counterparts. In the case of antineutrons they are opposite of neutrons inmagnetic moment. Positrons, which are the counterpart to electrons, have a positivecharge and antiprotons have a negative charge. Photons are their own antimattercounterpart. When a particle of matter collides with a particle of antimatter, both particles are destroyed and their masses are converted to photons of equivalent energy.

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    Asbestosis , A lung disease (pneumoconiosis) resulting from inhaling fibers of asbestosand marked by interstitial fibrosis of the lung.Atom , The smallest possible unit of matter that still maintains an element's identityduring chemical reactions. Atoms contain one or more protons and neutrons (except

    hydrogen (H), which normally contains no neutrons) in a nucleus around which one ormore electrons revolve.Atomic Mass (Atomic Mass Average), The average mass of all nuclides of an elementdetermined by the proportions in which each nuclide of the element are present withinthe earth and its atmosphere.Atomic Mass Unit (AMU), A mass unit that is exactly 1/12th the mass of a carbon 12(C12) atom (approximately 1.67E-24g).Atomic Number, The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. This determines anelement's structure, properties and location on the periodic table of elements.Atomic Radius, One-half the distance between two adjacent atoms in crystals ofelements. This varies according to interatomic forces.Atomic Volume, The atomic mass of an element divided by its density.Avogadro, Amadeo (1776-1856),An Italian chemist who first stated the principle behind stoichiometry in 1811. Also see Avogadro's Number and Molarity, Molality And Normality. Avogadro's Number , This is the number of atoms in a 12g sample of carbon-12 (C12).This is equal to 6.0221367E23 atoms. It is named for Italian chemist Amadeo Avogadro(1776-1856) who first stated the principle in 1811.Azimuthal Quantum Number (angular momentum quantum number) , Thequantum number that distinguishes orbitals of givenn having different shapes. This can be any interger value from 0 ton-1.

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    BBACT (Best Available Control Technology), Guidelines for municipal wastecombustors developed by EPA in 1986 that were intended to add consistency andreduce delay and confusion in the permitting process.Barns, A measurement of area equal to E -24 cm2.Base, Compounds that when dissolved in water increase the concentration of hydroxideions (OH). Bases are proton acceptors. Substances with a pH greater than 7 areconsidered to basic.Beta Particle , a charged particle emitted from the nucleus of some atoms as part ofthose atoms' radioactive decay. Positively charged beta particles are positrons andnegatively charged beta particles are electrons. Beta particles can cause burns and areharmful to living tissues, however, protection is afforded by a thin sheet of metal.Boiling Point, The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to orslightly greater than the atmospheric pressure of the environment. For water at sea level,its boiling point is 100C (212F).

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    CCAA (Clean Air Act), Passed by congress to have the air safe enough to protect the public's health by 5/31/1975. It was amended in 1990 to require EPA to develop morestringent and specific regulations for air emissions.Caplan's syndrome , Pneumoconiosis associated with rheumatoid arthritis.CAS, Chicago Academy of Science; Chemical Abstracts Service (which assigns CAS Numbers to chemicals).Cation, A positively charged ion.Ceiling, The exposure limit for a substance that should (or in the case of OSHA PEL's"shall") not be exceeded. If instantaneous monitoring is not feasible, then a 15-minutetime weighted average is used.Centigrade (Celsius), The scale for measuring temperature used internationally wherethe freezing point of water is zero and the boiling point of water at sea level is 100degrees. To convert from centigrade into Fahrenheit, multiply the centigradetemperature by 1.8 then add 32 to the product (C*1.8+32=F). To convert fromFahrenheit to centigrade, subtract 32 and then divide by 1.8 ((F-32)/1.8).CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and LiabilityAct, Superfund Act), Is responsible for the "cradle to grave law" that holds thegenerator of waste responsible for proper waste disposal and provides for cleanup of themost contaminated sites by the government, with the cost of cleanup being charged tothe responsible parties. Basically a generator becomes responsible for waste from it'sinception until it has been destroyed.Chemiluminescence, The emission of absorbed energy as light as the result of achemical reaction. This occurs in thousands of compounds both organic and inorganic.Chemical glow sticks and fireflies are examples of this.Coefficient of lineal thermal expansion, The ratio of change in length per degreecentigrade compared to the base length at zero degrees centigrade. The unit ofmeasurement is centimeter per centimeter per degree centigrade (cm/cm/C). Thismeasurement means that for every centimeter of base length, the length will change Xcentimeters for every change of one degree centigrade.

    Compound, a substance composed of atoms or ions of two or more elements that arechemically combined. Elements in a compound are present in definite proportions bymass and are bonded with each other in a specific manner.Conduction,Thermal conduction, the transfer of heat between two solid materials that are physicallytouching each other.

    Electrical conduction, the transfer of electrical current through a solid or liquid.Convection, The movement of heat by a moving liquid or gas. Convection results fromthe differences in the densities of a material at different temperatures. As a liquid or gas

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    http://../PARA%20CONVERTIR%20A%20PDF/Centigradehttp://../PARA%20CONVERTIR%20A%20PDF/Centigrade
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    raises in temperature, it becomes less dense and thus lighter thereby rising above itscooler and denser counterparts, which in turn sink.Covalent Radius , A chemical bond between atoms formed by the sharing of valenceelectrons.

    Cross section , The effective size of a nucleus in capturing a thermal neutron (slowneutron). Larger cross sections have a greater probability of neutron capture.Crystal Structure (crystal system) , The atomic arrangement of the atoms of anelement when it is in its solid state.Cubic ,

    Cubic, Body Centered

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    Cubic, Face Centered

    Hexagonal

    Monoclinic

    Orthorhombic

    Rhombohedral

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    Tetragonal

    CWA (Clean Water Act, Water Quality Act, WQA)

    Similar to the CAA, the CWA placed controls on disposal facilities generating ashquench-water, landfill leach rate and surface water discharges. Amended in 1987 andcalled the Water Quality Act (WQA) it set further standards for discharging into theenvironment and expanded to include storm run-off.

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    DDecomposition, A reaction where a single compound breaks down into simplercompounds.Deflagration, The extremely rapid burning of a material. This is much much faster thannormal combustion, but slower than detonation.Density, The ratio of mass to unit volume expressed in grams/cm3 for solids and liquidsand grams/liter in gases (density=mass/volume).Detonation, The sudden and violent release of mechanical, chemical or nuclear energyfrom a confined space which creates a shock wave that travels at supersonic speeds.Often used interchangeably with explosion.Diatomic, Elements that are present in the gaseous state as molecules composed of twoatoms. For example: O2, N2, Cl2 and H2 are diatomic.DOT (USDOT), United States Department of Transportation

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    EElectrical Conductivity, See ConductionElectrochemical equivalents, An element's mass displaced by a unit quantity ofelectricity passage. The formula used on this site is: electrochemical equivalents=k A/n.'k ' is a constant that equals 0.0373100, 'A' is the gram-atomic weight and 'n' is the principle valence.Electronegativity, A measure of the ability of an atom in a molecule to draw bonding electrons to itself. This is partially determined by how many electronvacancies are available in an element's filling orbital. The most electronegativeelements are the halogens, which have only one vacancy (i.e. have sevenelectrons in their filling orbital). Sulfur and oxygen are also highlyelectronegative.Electron, A particle of matter that has a negative electric charge of4.8 E -10 esu and a mass of 9.1E -28g or 1/1837 the mass of a proton.They can be found as a constituent part of an atom orbiting around the nucleus or in thefree state. Electrons are arranged around the nucleus of an atom in from one to sevenorbitals with the number of electrons in each orbital is strictly limited by the laws of physics.Electron work function (photoelectric work function) , The smallest amount of photonic energy necessary to remove an electron from the boundary of an element.Element, One of the 116 presently known substances that cannot bedecomposed by chemical reaction into a simpler substance. Elementscomprise all matter at and above the atomic level. All elements heavierthan lead (Pb) are radioactive and unstable. In addition, there are no stable elementswith odd numbers of both protons and neutrons heavier than nitrogen (N). Elementswith even numbers of protons and an even number of neutrons make up about 90% ofthe earth's crust.Energy Levels (electron shells, shells), The possible locations around anatom where electrons having specific energy values (quantum number) may

    be found. The term shell has been replaced with the term energy levels because the term shell insinuated that electrons circled the atom in fixedorbits like planets circle the sun. This model however is incorrect andoutdated. Although the term shell is outdated, it is still often used gradeschool and high school science classes, as its concepts are lessintimidating than are the use of terms like quantum number.EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) , Created in 1970 as anagency of the United States federal government, charged with protecting the environment and enforcing environmental laws and

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    regulations. The EPA did not play a significant role in wastemanagement until RCRA was inacted in 1976 in response to the LoveCanal incident.Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG), This guidebook, which is produced by the

    US Department of Transportation, assists responders in making initial decisions uponarriving at the scene of a dangerous goods incident. The 1996 edition of this guide wascalled the NAERG (North American Emergency Response Guidebook), however, the2000 edition reverted back to the original name. (online version of ERG)Explosion, The sudden and violent release of mechanical, chemical or nuclear energyfrom a confined space which creates a heat wave that travels at subsonic speeds. Oftenused interchangeably with detonation.

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    FFahrenheit , The temperature scale where 32 degrees is the freezing point of water and212 degrees at 760mm Hg (sea level) is the boiling point of water. To convert fromFahrenheit to centigrade, subtract 32 and then divide by 1.8 ((F-32)/1.8). To convertfrom centigrade into Fahrenheit, multiply the centigrade temperature by 1.8 then add 32to the product (C*1.8+32=F). This scale is named for G. D. Fahrenheit (1686-1736), theGerman physicist, who invented it and was the individual who introduced the use ofmercury (Hg) instead of alcohol in thermometers. Because of the health dangers relatedwith mercury, the use of mercury in thermometers is losing favor and once againalcohol thermometers are becoming more popular.Filling Orbital , The orbital of an element that is only partially filled with electronswhen an atom is at a neutral state electrically.Fibrosis, Formation of fibrous tissue as a reaction or as a repair process; may be resultof treatment and/or disease.First Ionization Potential (first ionization energy) , The minimum amount of energyneeded to remove the outermost (highest energy) electron from a neutral atom in thegaseous state.Freezing Point, see melting point.

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    G Gamma Ray , Extremely short wavelength and intensely high-energy electromagneticradiation. Gamma rays originate from an atom's nucleus and normally accompany alphaand beta particles as part of the emissions of the radioactive decay of an atom andalways accompany nuclear fission. Because gamma rays are energy and not matter, theyare very penetrating and can cause damage to animal and plant tissues. Gamma rays areabsorbed by extremely dense materials like lead (Pb) and depleted uranium (U).Gas, A substance of very low density that has no definite shape or volume.Group , The vertical columns (major classes or divisions) into which elements arearranged in the periodic table of elements. There are three common numbering systemsfor these groups:The new IUPAC system, which numbers each column with Arabic numbers from 1(one) through 18 (eighteen). To reduce confusion caused by the other two systems, thisis the system that is used in articles on this web site.The old IUPAC system, which labeled columns with Roman numerals followed byeither the letter 'A' or 'B'. Columns were numbed such that columns one through sevenwere numbered 'IA' through 'VIIA', columns 8 through 10 were labeled 'VIIIA',columns 11 through 17 were numbered 'IB' through 'VIIB' and column 18 wasnumbered 'VIII'.The CAS system, which also used Roman numerals followed by an 'A' or 'B'. Thismethod, however, labeled columns 1 and 2 as 'IA' and 'IIA', columns 3 through 7 as'IIIB' through 'VIB', column 8 through 10 as 'VIII', columns 11 and 12 as 'IB' and 'IIB'and columns 13 through 18 as 'IIIA' through 'VIIIA'.Because of the confusion the old IUPAC and the CAS system created, the IUPACadopted their new system.Elements are arranged in these groups according to whose proprieties are similar. Allelements in Group 1 for instance are alkali metals. They have only one electron in theouter shell (valence electron) and as a result are highly reactive. Elements in Group 17are the halogens. They all have seven electrons in the outer orbital (two in level s andfive in level p). They are also very reactive because they have seven electrons in the

    outer shell and will readily accept an electron in order to reach the ion configurationwith the ideal number of eight electrons in the outer shell. Elements Group 18 have acomplete outer shell with eight electrons. These noble gases are highly stable and do notreact to form compounds under normal conditions.

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    HHalf-life, The time it takes for one-half of the atoms of an unstable element or nuclideto decay radioactively into another element or nuclideHalogens, The reactive nonmetals that are in Group 17 of the periodic table. All ofthese elements are electronegative.Hazardous Material (HazMat) , Any material or substance, which even in normal use, poses a risk to health, safety, property or the environment. Hazardous materials are broken down into nine primary classes by the United Nations, the USDOT, IATA andother regulatory bodies for the purposes of the placarding and identification the hazardsof shipments.HDPE (high density polyethylene), The structure is similar to PVC except that there isno chlorine (Cl) associated with the molecule. The tight structure makes it very dense.Heat, An energy form proportional to and associated with molecular motion.Conduction, convection or radiation can transfer heat from one mass of matter toanother.Heat of Fusion, The heat required to convert a solid into a liquid with no temperaturechange. This is also called the latent heat of fusion or melting.Heat of Vaporization , The heat required to convert a substance from the liquid to thegaseous state with no temperature change. This is also called the latent heat ofvaporization.Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle , the conclusion that it is impossible to knowsimultaneously the absolute exact position and the absolute exact speed of a particlesuch as an electron. The more precisely the position is known of a particle at a momentin time, the less precisely can its speed be determined. Conversely the more preciselythe exact speed of a particle is known, the less precisely its position can be known.Werner P. Heisenberg, a German physicist, developed this principle from his work withquantum mechanics. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics in 1932 for his brilliantwork.As a side note, Star Trek fans will every now and then hear the crew refer to the"Heisenberg compensator" in the transporter pads. This is the writer's nod to this

    principle and the problems it would create for actually being able to teleport somethingthey way they do in the Star Trek series.Heterogeneous, A mixture or material consisting of more than one substance. Theearth's atmosphere is heterogeneous in that it typically consists of 20.7% oxygen, 78%nitrogen, 0.93% argon and 0.03% CO2 with other gasses making up the remaining percentage. Heterogeneous is Latin for "different kinds".Homogeneous, A substance or material that contains only one kind of compound or oneelement. Homogeneous is Latin for "the same kind". An example of a homogeneous

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    substance would be pure water, which only contains the compound H 2O or pure tablesalt that only contains the compound NaCl.Hyaluronic acid , A viscous polysaccharide found in the connective tissue space and thesynovial fluid of movable joints and the humors of the eye; it protects tissue.

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    IIATA (International Air Transport Association) , A Geneva Switzerland basedassociation that regulates international air transportation and publishes annualregulations for air shipments of hazardous materials.IDLH, Immediately dangerous to life and health. In the event of the accidental exposureto a chemical, this is the concentration below which an individual could escape within30 minutes without experiencing any escape-impairing or irreversible health effects.Inert Gasses , See Noble Gasses.Inner-Transition Metals , The thirty elements of the Lanthanides and Actinides series,which are sub-series of the Transition Metals.Inert , a chemically inactive element, compound or material. Because of their extremelylow chemical activity the noble gasses are considered to be inert substances. This termis also used for substances that are added to mixtures, primarily for their bulk andweight.Interface , The area where two immiscible phases of a dispersion come into contact. Itmay involve the same or different states of matter. There are five possible types:liquid/liquid (oil/water), liquid/gas (water/air), liquid/solid (water/clay), solid/gas(smoke/air), solid/solid (rubber carbon black).Ion, An atom that has gained or lost one or more electrons and thus has either a positive(cation) or negative (anion) charge.Ionic radius , The radius exhibited by an ion in an ionic crystal where the ions are packed together to a point where their outermost electronic orbitals are in contact witheach other.IUPAC, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemists, the standards body thatamong other things, makes recommendations regarding the names of newly discoveredelements and forms other chemistry related standards (such as the labeling of groups onthe periodic table).

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    K Kelvin (absolute temperature) , the temperature scale used in chemistry, physics andsome engineering calculations. Zero degrees Kelvin (-273 centigrade) is the temperatureat which all thermal motion ceases. To convert from Kelvin into centigrade subtract 273from the Kelvin temperature.Kinetic Energy, the energy associated with an object because of its motion.Kinetic-Molecular Theory (kinetic theory), the theory that states a gas consists ofmolecules in constant random motion.

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    LLabel, A warning notice required to be placed on a package of hazardous materials bythe USDOT, IATA and other regulatory agencies when shipping a package by air,highway, rail or water. Labels are akin to placards except that they are used onindividual packages and are typically 4" on each side.Lanthanides (rare earth metals) , The fourteen elements of the upper row on the inner-transition metals on the periodic table that follow the element lanthanum (#57). Somereference sources include lanthanum in this series others do not. For all of theseelements the filling orbital is 4f. This series is a sub-series of the transition metals.LDPE (Low Density Polyethylene), This structure is similar to high density polyethylene except that it is a less rigid and less dense form of the molecule.Liquid, An amorphous (non-crystalline) form of matter between a gas and a solid thathas a definite volume, but no definite shape.

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    MMolality, is the number of moles of solute dissolved in one kilogram of solvent. Note: be careful not to confuse molality and molarity. Molality is represented by a small "m,"whereas molarity is represented by an upper case "M."Molarity, the number of moles of a solute dissolved in a liter of solvent. Note: becareful not to confuse molality and molarity. Molality is represented by a small "m,"whereas molarity is represented by an upper case "M."Molar Mass , is a unit that enables scientists to calculate the weight of any chemicalsubstance, be it an element or a compound. Molar mass is the sum of all of the atomicmasses in a formula.Mole (mol), is the basic unit of measurement in chemistry. By definition, in modernchemistry, one mole represents the number of carbon atoms in exactly 12 grams ofcarbon 12 (C12).Molecule, a complete chemical unit. While a molecule is often thought of as consistingof more than one atom, this is not always true. For instance, helium has only one atom per molecule. The oxygen molecule (O2) contains two atoms, as do chlorine (Cl2),hydrogen (H2) and nitrogen (N2). Some molecules are huge having a molecular weightin the millions. Macromolecules contain literally thousands of atoms. Somemacromolecules must remain in tact in order to retain their chemical entity. These areusually proteins. Polymers are chains or networks of repeating sequences of chemicalunits known as molecules. Examples are polypropylene or cellulose. Molecules of polymers can be broken without destroying the chemical integrity.Monatomic, elements that are present in the gaseous state as single atoms. Theseelements are the noble gasses: He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe and Rn.MRF (Municipal Recycle Facility), Facilities for recycling municipal waste. There aredirty MRFs, which take all garbage as a collective and sort out the recycables at acentral facility, and there are clean MRFs that require recycables to be separated out bythe generator and are collected separately.MSW (Municipal Solid Waste), Includes non-hazardous non-liquid waste generated inhouseholds, commercial businesses, light industry and commercial establishments. The

    exact definition varies from one municipality to another.MWC (Municipal Waste Combustor) , Are modern waste incinerators that are highlyregulated in terms of permissible emissions. They also produce energy either in the formof steam or electricity.

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    NNanometer (nm), One billionth of a meter (10-9 or 0.000000001 m) or ten ngstroms.Neutron, a particle of matter that has a mass of 1.009 amu but no electrical charge.These particles are constituents of the nucleus of all elements except for hydrogen (H). Neutrons can exist in a free state. Because neutrons have no electrical charge, freeneutrons have great penetrating capabilities and are highly damaging to living tissue.The number of neutrons an element contains can vary (see neutron variability),however, the average number of neutrons any particular element contains can be figured by subtracting the atomic number of an element from it's atomic mass average androunding to the nearest whole number. When doing this, the resulting number should benoted something similar to: "On average this element contains X neutrons."NFPA 704, A hazards identification system developed by the National Fire ProtectionAssociation (NFPA). This system rates the health, fire and reactivity hazards of achemical on a scale of 0-4 where zero is no hazard and four is an extreme hazard. Inaddition this system notes special hazards such as acids, alkalis, corrosives, oxidizers,radioactives or water reactives. This system is commonly used on containers ofchemicals or on buildings containing chemicals. Typically it is denoted by the use of adiamond that is divided into four boxes, a blue box for health hazard, a red box for firehazard, a yellow box for reactivity, and a white box for special hazards.NIMBY, "Not in my back yard!" The attitude that citizens' have against waste disposalfacilities (hazardous or non-hazardous) being built in or near their community, evenwhen it is their own community that generates the waste (hence New York city shipsmuch of their waste to Virginia). This mindset slows down permitting processes forwaste facilities of all types regardless of the safety measures employed and results fromcitizens' basic distrust of waste management companies. Related ArticleNIOSH, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (United States). NIOSHis responsible for undertaking research and developing recommended health and safetystandards.Noble Gasses (inert gasses, rare gasses), elements belonging to Group 18 of the periodic table. These elements are very unreactive, however, they are not nonreactive as

    compounds containing these elements have been synthesized. There are no naturallyoccurring compounds that are made up of these elements.Nonmetal, elements that do not exhibit the characteristics of metals. These elementsdiffer markedly from metals in respect to electronegativity and thermal and electricalconductivity. These elements, in general, are poor conductors and have a highelectronegativity. This series includes halogens, noble gasses and some of themetalloids (B, Si, As and Te).

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    Nucleus , The core of an atom that contains at least one proton and one neutron (exceptfor hydrogen (H), which its most common nuclide doesn't have a neutron). This core is

    positively charged and contains almost all of an atom's mass.Nuclides (isotopes), Forms or species of an element that has the same numbers of

    protons (hence the same atomic number), but different numbers of neutrons, thusdifferent atomic masses. Technically speaking if an element has only one form that isthere is no variability in the number of neutrons that exist in the element, it has noisotopes. There are 21 elements that do not very in the number of neutrons in theirnuclei.

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    O ONP, Refers to Old Newspapers for recycling.Orbital , the area around an atom where according to orbital theory the probability offinding an electron is the greatest.Orbital Theory , the quantum theory matter that combines Schrodinger's wavemechanics and Heisenburg's uncertainty principle and applies this to the behavior andnature of electrons. Orbital theory was formulated in 1926 and has yielded a betterunderstanding of electrons and their critical role in chemical bonding than is possiblewith Newtonian mechanics.OSHA, United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration. This federalagency is responsible for writing and enforcing federal regulations related to workplacesafety (Code of Federal Regulations Title 29).Oxidation State (Oxidation Number) , Either the actual charge of an atom (ion) in asubstance, assuming the atom exists as a monatomic ion, or a hypothetical chargeassigned by simple rules. 2) The charge an atom would have in a substance if the pairsof electrons in each bond belonged to the more electronegative atom. 3) The number ofelectrons that must be added or subtracted from an atom in a combined state to convertit to the elemental form.Generally the following rules for assigning oxidation numbers to an atom can be used:In its elementary state the oxidation number of an atom is zero. For instance theoxidation number for chlorine Cl2 or oxygen O2 is zero.All Group IA (alkali metals) elements have an oxidation number of +1 in anycompound. All Group IIA (alkali earth metals) elements have an oxidation number of+2 in any compound.Fluorine has an oxidation number of -1 in all of its compounds.Chlorine, bromine and iodine have an oxidation number of -1 in any compound ofhalogen with a less electronegative element.Usually oxygen has an oxidation number of -2 in a compound. Peroxides, like H2O2 and Na2O2, are the major exceptions to this and in these cases oxygen has an oxidationnumber of -1.

    Hydrogen has an oxidation number of +1 in most of its compounds. In hydrides(compounds like NaH), however, in which hydrogen is bonded to metallic elements,hydrogen has an oxidation number of -1.The sum of the oxidation numbers of the atoms in a compound always equals zero. For polyatomic ions, the oxidation numbers of the atoms add up to the charge of the ion.

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    PPeriodic Law, The electron configurations of the atoms of the elements vary periodically with their atomic number. Consequently, all properties of the elements thatdepend on their electron configuration tend also to change with the increasing atomicnumber in a periodic manner.Periodic Table , an arrangement of elements in a geometric pattern designed torepresent the periodic law by aligning elements into periods and groups. Elements withthe same number of orbitals are in the same period and elements with the same numberof electrons in the filling orbital and have other similar properties are in the same group.Periods, While groups are characterized by the number of electrons present in the outershell, periods are characterized by the number of energy levels (shells) of electronssurrounding the nucleus. Elements in Period 1 has only one shell. As you probablyrecall, the elements in the first period have a 2 electrons maximum (hydrogen has 1electron and helium has 2 electrons. As we move to the first group of the second period,we find that lithium, which has the two electrons in the first shell and one in the second. Neon is in Group 18 of Period 2 and therefore has the two electrons in the first shell andeight electrons in the second shell. Sodium starts Period 3 with 11 electrons, two in thefirst shell, eight in the second shell and one in the third shell. In other words, theelement in Group 1 always has one more electron (in a new shell) than the Group 18element in the previous period.Peritoneum , Lining of the abdominal organs and cavity.Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) , The maximum allowable exposure set by OSHAunder the Code of Federal Regulations Title 29 Section 1910, Subpart Z.pH, A scale ranging from 0 to 14, which is used to determine how acidic or basic asubstance is. The pH of a substance is determined by taking the negative of thelogarithm of the molar hydrogen-ion concentration (pH=-log [H+]). Pure water has a pHof 7. Substances with a pH less than 7 are acids and substances with a pH greater than 7are bases.Photon, discrete concentrations of energy that move at the speed of light, have no restmass and can only be described in mathematical terms. The quantum unit of

    electromagnetic radiation that makes up light waves, gamma rays, x-rays etc.Pleura , The thin membrane enveloping the lungs and lining the thoracic cavity.Pleural Effusion , Presence of fluid in the pleural cavity resulting from excessivetransudation or exudation from the pleural surfaces. It is a sign of disease and not adiagnosis in itself.Pleural plaques , areas of fibrosis present on the inner surface of the ribcage and thediaphragm. They may be partly calcifiedPlacard , a warning sign measuring 10.8 inches on each side and standing on one point(like a diamond), that is placed on the four vertical sides of the truck, rail car,

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    intermodal container or two sides of an intermediate bulk container containinghazardous materials. Placards are required by the USDOT, Transport Canada,Secretariat of Transport (Mexico) and other regulatory agencies around the world whenshipping hazardous materials by air, highway, rail or water.

    Pneumoconiosis , a condition characterized by deposition of large amounts of particulate matter or fibers in the lungs, usually of occupational or environmental origin,and by the tissue reaction to its presence.Positron, a positively charged particle of antimatter that has the same mass and spin ofan electron.Principal Quantum Number , A positive integer constant that determines the principalenergy level of an electron. Sometimes it is designated by the letters K, L or M. RelatedinformationPrecision, In measurement indicates a set of measurements that are very similar. Theymay or may not be close to the true answer.Proton , A particle of matter with a positive electrical charge and a mass of 1 amu or1.67E -24g. Although a proton has a mass 1837 times greater than an electron, it is nearlyidentical in mass to a neutron. Protons are constituents of the nuclei of all elements andan elements atomic number is dependent upon how many protons an element has.Pulmonary Fibrosis , Chronic inflammation and progressive fibrosis of the pulmonaryalveolar walls, usually results in death from oxygen lack or right heart failure.PURPA (Public Utilities Regulatory and Policy Act), Created to encourage co-generation and small power producers, PURPA requires investor owned utilities to purchase electrical power from co-generators or small power producers.PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride), The polymerized form of chloroethene or vinyl chloride isa matrix of double the bonded carbon molecule CH2=CHCl. The double bonds breakand become single bonds, and the vinyl chloride molecules become bonded to eachother. The result is PVC or polyvinyl chloride plastic. The burning of PVC results in theformation of acid rain.

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    Q Quantum , The tiniest amount of physical energy that can exist independently,especially a finite amount of electromagnetic radiation.Quantum (wave) Mechanics, A branch of physics that describes the wave properties ofsubatomic particles mathematically.Quantum Number , The basic unit of electromagnetic energy. This characterizes thewave properties of electrons, as distinct from their particulate properties. Thisdetermines the principle energy level of an electron.

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    RRadiation (radiant energy) , energy in the form of electromagnetic waves. Differentforms of radiation comprise the electromagnetic spectrum and are characterized by theirdifferent wave frequency and wavelength. Radiation is emitted from matter in the formof photons. The following types of radiation make up the electromagnetic spectrum (inorder of decreasing energy and increasing wavelength): cosmic rays, gamma rays, x-rays, UV (ultraviolet) rays, visible light rays, infrared, microwave, radio (Hertzian)waves and electric waves. These electromagnetic waves have no mass and are notelectrically charged. The shortest wavelength forms of radiation are most penetratingand are the most damaging to living tissue.Radioactivity, the spontaneous emission of radiation and atomic particles from unstableelements. Radioactivity is measured in terms of half-lives and is not affected by physical state or chemical combination.Rare Earth Metals , see LanthanidesRare Gasses, see Noble GassesRCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act), The principle law in the UnitedStates that governs the disposal of solid waste and the management of both solid andhazardous waste.RDF (refuse derived fuel), a product of a mixed waste processing system from whichsome recycleable wastes and som non-combustible materials have been removed. Theremaining material is used as a fuel to create energy.Recommended Exposure Limit (REL), The maximum recommended exposure limit.With the occasional exception in some jurisdictions, REL's are only suggested industry practices and are not enforced by legal regulations (as are PEL's, which are regulated inthe U.S. byOSHA under 29 CFR).Relative Error , the ratio of the absolute error to the exact value.

    Relative error =(exact value - observed value)/(exact value)RTECS, Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances.

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    http://../PARA%20CONVERTIR%20A%20PDF/OSHAhttp://../PARA%20CONVERTIR%20A%20PDF/OSHA
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    SSecond Ionization Potential, To be definedShort Term Exposure Limit (STEL) , The maximum exposure limit to a substance based on a 15 minute time weighted average.Scientific Method, a research method that involves:1. Making an observation2. Developing a hypothesis3. Experimentation4. Testing and retesting (usually by many other scientists)5. Developing a theory6. If theory is proven beyond a doubt (e.g.: the law of gravity) a law may result

    (rarely does the scientific method reach this degree of acceptance as fact)Solution, a uniformly dispersed mixture of molecules or ions. The substance beingdissolved is the solute, while the substance into which the solute is dissolved is thesolvent.Specific Gravity, the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a referencesubstance. Specific Gravity does not have any units. When water is used as thereference material, specific gravity equals density (without units).Specific Gravity (SG) = (Density of substance g/ml)/(Density of reference substanceg/ml). Notice that g/ml cancels out so that there are no units associated with specific gravity.Specific Gravity then becomes an abstract number.Specific Heat, the ratio of heat capacity of a substance to the heat capacity of water.Another way of looking at it is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature ofone gram of a substance by one degree centigrade or one degree Kelvin (1 J/gC = 1J/gK).Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP) , the standard conditions of 273.15 K and1 atm (0C at sea level). used as a baseline for calculations involving quantities thatvary with temperature and pressure.Stoichiometry, the quantitative relationship between chemical substances in a reaction.

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    U UN/NA, NumberUN/NA ID ( UN Number, NA Number, DOT Number ), A four digit numberrepresenting a particular chemical or group of chemicals. These numbers are assigned by the United Nations (UN Numbers), the U.S. Department of Transportation (NA Numbers), or Transport Canada (NA Numbers). These numbers are commonly usedthroughout the world to aid in the quick identification of the materials contained within bulk containers (such as rail cars, semi-trailers and intermodal containers).

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