Croatia14 Pola

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Transcript of Croatia14 Pola

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  • Greek tradition attributed the foundation of Polai to the Colchians, mentioned in the context of the story of Jason and Medea, who had stolen the Golden Fleece. The Colchians, who had chased Jason into the northern Adriatic, were unable to catch him and ended up settling in a place they called Polai, signifying "city of refuge"In historic times Pola first appears as a Roman town. It is said to have been destroyed by Augustus on account of its adherence to the party of Brutus and Cassius, and it was re-founded by him under the name "Pietas Julia" as a monument of his reverence for the first Caesar, a colony of his soldiers being settled here on land taken from the older inhabitants


  • Croatian lawyer and politician

  • Bell Tower Of Saint Anthony ChurchSaint Anthony Church

  • The Arena, the 6th largest surviving Roman amphitheatre. Towering over the nearby buildings this huge structure was barely saved from destruction several times during its life, mostly by various Venetians with plans to take it to Venice stone by stone as demonstration of the might of the Venetian empire

  • Many stones were taken to build houses and other structures around Pula, but fortunately this practice was stopped before the whole structure was destroyed

  • Senator Gabriele Emo successfully opposed the destruction of the amphitheatre and, as a sign of gratitude, the citizens of Pola placed a celebratory inscription and his coat of arms on one of the towers. By mere coincidence in that same period the Colosseo was close to being pulled down by Pope Sixtus V who wanted to open a new street across it. The project was eventually abandoned


  • S. Maria in Canneto, built by St. Maximian, the archbishop of Ravenna under whom so many buildings were erected in that city during the reign of Justinian. S. Maria in Canneto was consecrated in 546

    S. Maria in Canneto. No greater loss has befallen Pola, except perhaps that of the theatre, than that of the famous abbey church of S. Maria in Canneto, built by St. Maximian, the archbishop of Ravenna under whom so many buildings were erected in that city during the reign of Justinian. S. Maria in Canneto was consecrated in 546. It was a basilican church with a nave and aisles, the aisles being raised two steps above the nave. The nave ended with an apse, but the aisles instead of having apses terminated each in a circular chamber, of which Dr. Kandler saw the ruins. Two chapels in the form of a Greek cross stood right and left of the eastern end, one of which remains in the garden of a modern house and is still used as a church. It is quite plain. (..) The rest of this magnificent basilica, with its marble columns, mosaic pavements and Byzantine sculpture, has entirely disappeared, and the very site is covered with houses, gardens and workmen's yards. Its ruin began with the Genoese invasions in the fourteenth century; in the next century its marbles and bronzes were carried to Venice for the adornment of the churches there, and there is documentary evidence that at a still later date, in 1545, Sansovino was sent by the Senate to take away the marble columns of S. Maria Formosa (di Canneto) and bring them to Venice. (..) Its spoliation however was not yet complete, for in 1605 the Venetians transported hence the four magnificent columns of oriental alabaster that now stand against the apse wall of St. Mark's behind the high altar, which are well known to modern travellers from the trick of the "custodi", who strike a match behind them to shew their transparency, and unblushingly aver that they belonged to the temple of Solomon at Jerusalem. T. G. JacksonIn Canneto, the name by which the Basilica was referred to, indicates that the area where it stood became marshy (it is very near the sea). Most likely this was the cause of its abandonment and decay. The design of the remaining chapel strongly resembles the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia at Ravenna. The history of Pola after the fall of the Western Roman Empire (476) is linked to that of Ravenna. It was conquered by the Ostrogoths in 493 and by the Byzantines in 538. It became part of the Exarchate of Ravenna and its harbour housed the Byzantine fleet*

  • Porta Gemina (Twin Gate)

    The Twin Gates (Porta Gemina) is one of the few remaining gates after the city walls were pulled down at the beginning of the 19th century. It dates from the mid-2nd century, replacing an earlier gate. It consists of two arches, columns, a plain architrave and a decorated frieze. Close by are a few remains of the old city wall.*

  • Porta Gemina (Twin Gate) was a decorative entrance to Pola. It was most likely built in the 2nd century AD, when the wall enclosure had the mere purpose of marking the legal boundary of the town. The Venetians, in order to strengthen the defences of the town, closed Porta Gemina

  • The size and position of the Hercules Gate indicate that it was built together with the walls in the first century BC

    The Gate of Hercules dates from the 1st century. At the top of the single arch one can see the bearded head of Hercules, carved in high-relief, and his club on the adjoining voussoir. A damaged inscription, close to the club, contains the names of Lucius Calpurnius Piso and Gaius Cassius Longinus who were entrusted by the Roman senate to found a colony at the site of Pula. Thus it can be deduced that Pula was founded between 47 and 44 BC.*

  • Hercules Gate - circular tower next to the gateAfter destruction of Western Roman Empire, Istrian peninsula was devastated by Ostrogoths. Slavs came in Istria during migration period in 7th century but mostly lived on countryside. At that time Pula was still inhabited mostly by Italians

  • Small Roman Theater:in addition to the Amphitheater, Pula had two other theaters during the Roman period.

    Two Roman theatres have withstood the ravages of time: the smaller one (diameter c. 50 m; 2nd century AD) near the centre, the larger one (diameter c. 100 m; 1st century AD) on the southern edge of the city*

  • The Sergii Gate (Golden gate)

    notable and well-preserved ancient Roman structures are the 1st-century AD triumphal arch, the Arch of the Sergii and the co-eval temple of Rome and Augustus, built in the 1st century AD built on the forum during the reign of the Roman emperor Augustus.*

  • The Sergii Gate (Golden gate)The Golden Gate was erected between the years 29 and 27 BC by the Sergi family, in honor of three members of the family who held important positions in Pula at that time. Today numerous cultural performances, theatrical and musical, are held on the square next to the Arch. The adjacent street is a shopping area


  • The Sergii Gate (Golden gate)This triumphal arch leaned against the city gate Porta Aurea thus called because of its richly ornamented arch or gilded elements

    The gate and wall were pulled down in the beginning of the 19th century as a result of the city expansion outside the city walls.

    The Arch was constructed in Corinthian style with strong Hellenistic and Asia Minor influences both in the method and ornaments. As the eastern side was not visible it has remained for the most part uncarved, while the western, town side is richly decorated. *

  • The Sergii Gate (Golden gate)

  • Pola is the largest city in Istria County, situated at the southern tip of the Istria peninsula, with a population of 57,460The Forum is the main square in the center of the city. The square is built on the place of the ancient Roman forum


  • On the square there is city hall that was built in 10th century (parts of an old temple were used for the building as it can be seen on the rear side of the hall)

    Communal PalaceAt the time when Pula was a free municipality, a palace was erected in the Forum the seat of the municipal self-government. During the Venetian rule it was the seat of the duke and provveditore, and until the present has remained the seat of the mayor. Additions over the centuries (from the 10th -16th centuries) led to a building that in an exceptional way combines architectural styles from the Romanesque until the Renaissance. The inscription built in the facade, which was restored in the 16th century, dates the construction of the Communal Palace to 1296. The year probably refers to the first greater reconstruction and addition, because this was surely the seat of the municipal government even earlier.

    Earlier phases of the development of the Communal Palace in terms of its construction can best be seen on the eastern wall where Romanesque and Gothic styles intertwine. Sculptures of Telamon and Siren in the corners closed by Renaissance columns, and Baroque windows are the latest alterations of the outer appearance of the Communal Palace: neglect and negligence have left considerable traces on the building that has recently been radically restored.*

  • The Temple of Augustus, situated in the Forum, dedicated to goddess Roma and Emperor Augustus. It was constructed between the year 2 BC and AD 14 when the Emperor died

    notable and well-preserved ancient Roman structures are the 1st-century AD triumphal arch, the Arch of the Sergii and the co-eval temple of Rome and Augustus, built in the 1st century AD built on the forum during the reign of the Roman emperor Augustus.The Augustan Forum was constructed in the 1st century BC, close to the sea. In Roman times it was surrounded by temples of Jupiter, Juno and Minerva. This Roman commercial and administrative centre of the city remained the main square of classical and medieval Pula - Pola. It still is the main administrative and legislative centre of the c