Compilación de Textos Inglés-Español

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    TEXTO 01The Discovery of Analytical GeometryThe discovery of analytical geometry is usually attributed to Descartes (1596-1650) andFermant (1601-65), but it was certainly known and used before their time. After Descartes hadresigned his commission so as to have more time for mathematics and philosophy, he firstwrote Le Mond, which he did not publish, and then the most famous of al1 his books, Discoursde la Mthode, which appeared in 1637. This was main1y philosophical, but Descartes added

    three scientific appendices to it in the subsequent year, the third being La Gomtrie, in whichhe explained the principles of analytical geometry. This is the book which Newton read atCambridge, and which helped to create his interest in mathematics. It is difficult to read, and itsstyle is obscure. Descartes said he made it so on purpose for fear that certain wiseacres mightbe tempted to say that they had known it all the time. Fortunately, John Wallis (1616-1703), aCambridge mathematician who had become professor at Oxford, published a treatise on conicsections in 1655 which explained the whole subject very cleary.Another great French mathematician, Pierre de Fermant, was also interested in the subject, andseems to have discovered the general methods of analytical geometry independently ofDescartes. But at most of his work remained unpublished until after his death, the credit must

    go mainly to Descartes.The general principles of the method are readily understood.The various properties of the circle, as enumerated by Euclid, seem at first to be detached andindependent properties--like the size of a man's shoes and the colour of his overcoat--but theyare not. Most of them are true of no curve but the circle, so that any one of them forms a sortof definition, or complete description, of the circle, and so contains all the properties of thecircle inherent in itself.

    TRADUCCIN 01El descubrimiento de la geometra analtica

    El descubrimiento de la geometra analtica se suele atribuir a Descartes (1596-1650) y Fermant(1601-65), pero es ciertamente conocido y utilizado antes de su tiempo. Despus de Descarteshaba renunciado a su comisin de manera de disponer de ms tiempo para las matemticas yla filosofa, le escribi Le Mond, que no public, y, a continuacin, el ms famoso de al1 suslibros, Discours de la Mthode, que apareci en 1637. Este fue main1y filosfico, sino cientficoDescartes aadi tres anexos a ella en el ao siguiente, la tercera se La Gomtrie, en la queexplic los principios de la geometra analtica. Este es el libro que lee Newton en Cambridge, yque contribuy a crear su inters en las matemticas. Es difcil de leer, y su estilo es oscuro.Descartes dice que as lo hizo a propsito, por temor de que algunos wiseacres podra tener latentacin de decir que se ha conocido todo el tiempo. Afortunadamente, John Wallis (1616-

    1703), un matemtico de Cambridge que se han convertido en profesor de Oxford, public untratado sobre cnicas en 1655 que se explica todo el tema muy claro.Otro gran matemtico francs, Pierre de Fermant, tambin estaba interesado en el tema, yparece haber descubierto los mtodos generales de la geometra analtica independiente deDescartes. Pero en la mayor parte de su trabajo permaneci indito hasta despus de sumuerte, el crdito debe ir principalmente a Descartes.Los principios generales del mtodo son fciles de entender.Las diversas propiedades del crculo, que se enumeran por Euclides, en la primera parece serseparados e independientes propiedades -- al igual que el tamao de un hombre de los zapatosy el color de su abrigo -- pero no lo son. La mayora de ellos son de verdad no se curva, pero elcrculo, de manera que cualquiera de ellos forma una especie de definicin o descripcincompleta, del crculo, y as contiene todas las propiedades del crculo inherentes a la misma.

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    TEXTO 02Operating SystemsThe first operating systems were created for the first electronic computers in the late 1940's.They were sets of simple routines for input and output, such as a program for storing binarycodes read from a punched paper tape into successive memory locations. The entire operatingsystem consisted of a few hundred machine instructions.By the mid-1950's most computers were being run in "batch mode". An operating system

    collected programs submitted by many individuals and executed them in rapid succession,thereby eliminating the delays entailed in manually loading one program at a time. Operatingsystems of this kind were called supervisors or monitors. In addition to their primary function ofprogram loading they managed secondary storage devices (such as magnetic disks, drums andtapes), allocated main memory and handled input and output. In most cases they also includeda software "library" of commonly needed routines. For example, many computer applicationscall for the sorting of information; if a versatile sorting routine is part of the library, theoperating system can load it along with each program that needs it.By 1960 the first time-sharing systems were being designed. In this method of operating acomputer the attention of the central processor is switched rapidly among several user

    programs, giving all the users the illusion that their programs are executing simultaneously. Inconstructing such systems the problems of sharing the processor, the memory and the varioussoftware resources had to be addressed. Solving those problems gave rise to a number ofimportant conceptual advances, including parallel process synchronization, virtual memory,device-independent input and output and interactive command languages.As operating systems became more elaborate they also grew larger. The Compatible TimeSharing System, put into operation at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1963,consisted of approximately 32.000 36-bit words of storage, os/360, introduced a year later bythe International Business Machines Corporation, had more than a million machine instructions.By 1975 the Multiessystem, developed by M.I.T. and Bell Laboratories, had grown to more than

    20 million instructions.By then, however, a countervailing influence was being felt: minicomputers had entered themarketplace and microcomputers (including personal computers) were beginning to appear.These machines were slower and had a smaller memory capacity than the mainframe machinesof the time, but they extended access to computing to a much broader range of potential users.In order to squeeze operating systems into the smaller accommodations of mini andmicrocomputers the functions of the system were divided. Services needed by almost allprograms, such as input and output routines, were put in a "kernel" that remains in the mainmemory of the computer whenever it is running. Other programs, called system utilities, arestored on disk and read into main memory only when they are needed Judging from the

    operating systems introduced in the past several years, it appears the minimum kernel neededto manage the resources of a single computer consists of a few tens of thousands instructions.The available utilities and libraries of software are continuing to grow almost exponentially,straining the capacity of secondary-storage facilities.

    TRADUCCIN 02Sistemas OperativosLos primeros sistemas operativos se crearon para el primer ordenador electrnico a fines del1940's. Son conjuntos de simples rutinas de entrada y salida, tales como un programa paraalmacenar cdigos binarios leer desde una cinta de papel perforado en sucesivos de memoria.Todo el sistema operativo consisti en unos pocos cientos de instrucciones de mquina.A mediados de la dcada - 1950 de la mayor parte de los equipos se ejecute en "modo porlotes". Un sistema operativo recogido muchos programas presentados por los particulares y losejecutaron en rpida sucesin, lo que supone la eliminacin de las demoras en cargarmanualmente un programa a la vez. Los sistemas operativos de este tipo fueron llamados

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    supervisores o monitores. Adems de su funcin principal de los programas de carga lograrondispositivos de almacenamiento secundarios (tales como discos magnticos, tambores y cintas),asign la memoria principal y la manipulacin de entrada y salida. En la mayora de los casostambin se incluye un software "biblioteca" de uso comn que se necesita rutinas. Por ejemplo,muchas aplicaciones convocatoria de la clasificacin de la informacin; si un verstilclasificacin de rutina es parte de la biblioteca, el sistema operativo puede cargar con ella a lolargo de cada programa que lo requiera.

    Para 1960 los primeros sistemas de tiempo compartido se est diseando. En este mtodo defuncionamiento de un ordenador a la atencin del procesador central se enciende rpidamenteentre varios programas de usuario, dar a todos los usuarios de la ilusin de que sus programasson de ejecucin simultnea. En la construccin de tales sistemas de los problemas decompartir el procesador, la memoria y los diversos software de recursos haba que abordar. Lasolucin de estos problemas ha dado lugar a una serie de importantes avances conceptuales,incluida la sincronizacin del proceso paralelo, memoria virtual, independiente del dispositivo deentrada y salida y la interfaz del comando idiomas.Como los sistemas operativos ms elaborados que se convirti tambin creci ms grandes. ElCompatible Time Sharing System, puesto en funcionamiento en el Instituto de Tecnologa de

    Massachusetts en 1963, constaba de aproximadamente 32.000 de 36 bits palabras dealmacenamiento, os/360, present un ao ms tarde por la International Business MachinesCorporation, haba ms de un milln de mquina Instrucciones. En 1975 la Multiessystem,desarrollado por el MIT Y Bell Laboratories, haba crecido a ms de 20 millones deinstrucciones.Para ent