Baxter Magolda Presentation

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  • 7/27/2019 Baxter Magolda Presentation


    B. Magolda Model of

    Epistemological Reflection

    J. Dantas & A. Farina

    EDU 731

    Theory Presentation/Discussion

  • 7/27/2019 Baxter Magolda Presentation




    Current Professional Title Distinguished

    Professor in Educational Leadership @

    Miami University (Ohio)


    Ph.D. The Ohio State University

    -College Student Personnel/Higher Education

    M.A. The Ohio State University

    -College Student Personnel/Higher Education

    B.A. Capital University


    The Role of Higher Education:

    I think that there is a great fear that if students think for themselves,

    they will not value what their parents and leaders want them to value. In

    reality when students have genuine values, they know why they have

    them; they hold them more strongly.


    We as adult educators know what it takes to function in adult life. We

    also know that our students have yet to develop those capacities we

    have identified. It is not something that we can ignore because it cannot

    be measured. Look at how long we have struggled with alcohol abuse

    issues. Are we making progress with fraternity hazing? People are not

    willing to say we have to approach peoples development. We see what

    happens when people do not have these capacities.

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    The Study 1986 5 year longitudinal study


    A.101 Total Students

    B. 51 Women/50 Men

    C. Predominately White

    ethnic groupsD. 3 non-White Participants

    Research Method: Interviews

    Focused on knowledge from

    freshman year to 1 year after


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    Six Principles Process & Results

    1. The making of meaning is influenced by each individuals worldview and

    by interaction with others and depends on the context of an individuals


    2. Ways of knowing can best be understood through the principles ofnaturalistic inquiry, which preserve the integrity of individual stories and


    3. Reasoning patterns are not mutually exclusive and may shift in changing

    contexts and over time.

    4. Patterns are related to, but not dictated by, gender.

    5. Student stories and interpretations of patterns cannot automatically be

    generalized to other contexts.

    6. Ways of knowing, and reasoning patterns within them, were presented

    as patterns in order to describe the predominant ways of knowing.

    --(Bock, 1999, p. 29-30)

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    Magoldas Model of

    Epistemological Reflection

    Absolute Knowing

    Transitional Knowing

    Independent Knowing Contextual Knowing

    Gender patterns exist in

    the first 3 stages.

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    Absolute Knowledge

    Knowledge exists as a certainty.

    Possessed by authority figures (teachers). Students see no place for them in the

    creation of knowledge.

    Students role is to obtain knowledge fromteachers.

    There are right and wrong answers.

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    Absolute Knowledge Contd.

    Women - Receiving Knowers.

    An internalized approach to learning, Silent


    Believe it is their responsibility to collect

    information without criticizing and use evaluation

    as a chance to show their knowledge. If they are having a difficult time learning then

    they must listen better or study differently.

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    Absolute Knowledge Contd.

    Men - Mastering Knowers.

    Takes a verbal and interactive approach to


    They believe it is the teachers responsibility to

    share knowledge in an interesting way but they

    share a mutual responsibility for learning. They are evaluated based on their ability to

    exchange knowledge with teachers and peers


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    Transitional Knowledge

    Recognize that some areas of knowledge

    are certain, and some are uncertain.

    Hearing the viewpoints of others helps to

    develop understanding.

    Students become focused on the processof learning rather than acquisition of facts.

    Expects evaluation of work to affirm their


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    Transitional Knowledge Contd.

    Women- Interpersonal Pattern.

    Relationships and personal knowledge are

    central to the learning process.

    Focus is uncertainty and they rely on their

    peers for answers.

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    Transitional Knowledge Contd.

    Men - Impersonal Pattern.

    Focus on mastering the learning process. See instructors as individuals who resolve

    their uncertainty and improve their

    understanding. Utilize peers only to facilitate the learning

    process through debate or discussion.

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    Independent Knowledge

    Students discover that most knowledge is


    Value their own opinions and those of

    others (reserving the right to disagree).

    Everyone is entitled to his/her own beliefs. Feels no pressure to persuade or be


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    Independent Knowledge Contd.

    Women - Interindividual Pattern.

    Use the interchange of their views andothers views to clarify their way of thinking.

    Attribute differences in knowledge to

    individual biases or individual opinion. Expect instructors to share in the value of

    their ideas and to work with the students in

    the evaluation process.

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    Independent Knowledge Contd.

    Men - Individual Pattern.

    Focus on their own thinking and opinions. Value exchanges with peers but not with

    the purpose of changing their views.

    They expect that classroom evaluation oftheir progress will be centered around their

    thinking and on beliefs about the subject


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    Contextual Knowledge

    Individuals tend not to formulate ideas

    before considering the context of each

    situation or issue.

    Individuals no longer accept their own and

    others views without further analysis.

    The process of making judgments, and

    integrating and applying knowledge, within

    a context is the hallmark of a contextual

    knower (Bock, 1999, p. 36).

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    Application to

    Student Affairs


    Career Services for Students

    -Each stage not necessarily

    age or class related.

    -Absolute Knowing =

    Freshman year.

    -Transitional = Junior and

    Senior year.

    -Career counselors need tofocus on individual needs of

    students and tailor career

    advice appropriately.

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    Career Services Contd.

    Absolute Knowledge Career counselors are

    seen as the experts.

    Transitional Knowledge Level of

    understanding increases. There is a greatersense of how an individual fits in a particular

    career track.

    Independent Knowledge Own opinions are

    formulated and freely expressed.

    Contextual Knowledge Develop own career


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    Bock, M.T. (1999). Baxter Magoldas Epistelmological reflection model. New Directions for Student

    Services, 88, 29-40.

    Educational Leadership (n.d.). {Photo}. Retrieved from



    Edwards, P. (Ed.). (1967). The encyclopedia of philosophy. New York: Macmillan.

    Magolda, B. (2009).Authoring your life: Developing an internal voice to navigate lifes challenges.

    Sterling, VA: Stylus.

    Perry, W.G. (1970). Forms of intellectual and ethical development in the college years: A scheme.

    New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.