2. El Factor Humano

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EL FACTOR HUMANO Grau en Enginyeria Informàtica Interacció Persona-Ordinador Toni Granollers El Curso de Interacción Persona-Ordenador ha sido realizado por Toni Granollers bajo la licencia Creative Commons Reconocimiento- NoComercial 4.0 Internacional License .

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Transcript of 2. El Factor Humano

IPO

El Factor Humano

Grau en Enginyeria InformticaInteracci Persona-Ordinador

Toni Granollers

El Curso de Interaccin Persona-Ordenador ha sido realizado por Toni Granollers bajo la licencia Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial 4.0 Internacional License.

IPO GEInformtica, curs 2014-155.- El Factor HumToni Granollers.1

PresentacinEn el pasado los diseadores de sistemas no daban ninguna importancia al elemento humano

Sabemos por experiencia que el uso de sistemas son muchas veces difciles, complicados y frustrantes

Es importante conocer los aspectos humanos de la interaccin para mejorarlaEl Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO2 / 110

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ObjetivosConocer los tipos de percepciones ms relevantes desde el punto de vista interactivo que tiene la persona

Conocer como se ha realizado el proceso de comprensin y los modelos de memoria

Comprender que el modelo de memoria condiciona el diseo de la interfaz

Ver la importancia que tiene la limitacin de la memoria de trabajoEl Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO3 / 110

The Psychologists View of UX DesignPeople Don't Want to Work or Think More Than They Have ToPeople Have LimitationsPeople Make MistakesHuman Memory Is ComplicatedPeople are SocialAttention (is a key to designing an engaging UI)People Crave InformationUnconscious ProcessingPeople Create Mental ModelsVisual System

http://uxmag.com/articles/the-psychologists-view-of-ux-design?goback=%2Egde_72842_member_213335291El Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO4 / 110

http://unbounce.com/online-marketing/32-bullseye-ux-posts-to-hit-your-conversion-targets/El Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO5 / 110

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Un modelo simple del procesamiento de informacin

INPUTpercepcionesOUTPUTMotor/comportamientoEl Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO7 / 110

Psicologa cognitivaDisciplina cientfica que estudia el sistema de procesamiento de la informacin en la mente humanaCognicin: Adquisicin, mantenimiento y uso del conocimiento

repeticinEl Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO8 / 110

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Actividades cognitivas de un usuario

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Modelo procesamiento humanoEl Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO11 / 110

Modelo procesamiento humanoA muy alto nivel, podemos describir una persona como un procesador de informacin del cual se distinguen:Dos partes:El conjunto de memorias y procesadoresEl conjunto de principios de operacinTres subsistemas con mutua interaccin:El sistema perceptivo, tiene sensores y memorias buffer; transforma las entradas en cdigos simblicos que son almacenadosEl sistema cognitivo, que recibe los cdigos simblicos del sistema perceptivo, situndolos en la memoria de trabajo, y utiliza esta, y la memoria a largo plazo para tomar decisionesEl sistema motor, que ejecuta las respuestasDisponemos deun procesador perceptivo, un procesador cognitivo, yun procesador motorLas memorias se describen a partir dela capacidad de almacenamientoel tiempo de decada (de un concepto almacenado)el tipo principal de cdigo (visual, fsico, ...) Que segn las tareas trabajan secuencialmente, o en paralelo

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Modelo procesamiento humano

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Sistemas sensorialesEn la transmisin de informacin del ordenador a la persona hemos de considerar los sistemas sensoriales humanos

EntradaPercepcin a travs de los sentidosVistaOdoTactoGustoOlfatoSalidaAcciones a travs de los actuadores (efectores)ExtremidadesMiembrosDedosOjosCabezaSistema vocal

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Sensacin: Los canales de entradaEl conocimiento del mundo lo construimos con la vista, odo, tacto, dolor, sensacin de movimientos corporales

La percepcin comienza en las clulas receptoras que son sensibles a uno u otro tipo de estmulos

Las vas sensoriales conectan al receptor perifrico con las estructuras centrales del procesamiento

El cerebro no registra el mundo externo simplemente como una fotografa tridimensional sino que construye una representacin interna despus de analizar sus componentes

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Los canales de entrada. Sistema visualVer es obtener informacin a partir de la energa electromagntica que llega a los ojosDe la estructura espacial del mundo que nos rodea y los distintos aspectos que pueden distinguirse en l

La luz es la porcin del espectro electromagntico que puede ser detectado por el sistema visual humano

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El sistema visual y la IPOSensacinEs la captacin del estmulo fsico y su transformacin en impulso nervioso

PercepcinAsignacin de significado al estmulo que ha entrado en nuestro sistema cognitivo

En el nivel sensorio visual hablaremos de color e iluminacinLas personas trabajamos en un ambiente luminoso que influye en como se ve la informacin presentada en la interfaz

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El sistema visualOur visual system is much more sensitive to differences in color and brightness (to contrasting edges) than to absolute brightness levels

They are the same exact shade of red but the different backgrounds make the one on the left appear darker to our contrast-sensitive visual system.El Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO18 / 110

El sistema visual. LimitationsThree presentation factors affect our ability to distinguish colors from each other:Paleness: The paler (less saturated) two colors are, the harder it is to tell them apart.

Color patch size: The smaller or thinner objects are, the harder it is to distinguish their colors. Text is often thin, so the exact color of text is often hard to determine.

Separation: The more separated color patches are, the more difficult it is to distinguish their colors, especially if the separation is great enough to require eye motion between patches.

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Several years ago, the online travel Web site ITN.net used two pale colors whiteand pale yellow to indicate which step of the reservation process the user was on(see Fig. 5.5). Some site visitors couldnt see which step they were on.

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El sistema visual. Limitations.

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El sistema visual. Limitations.Color-blindness inability to see colors. One or more of the color subtraction channels dont function normally, making it difficult to distinguish certain pairs of colors

The most common type of colorblindness is red/green

Others: dark red from blackblue from purplelight green from white

http://www.dasplankton.de/ContrastAEl Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO21 / 110

Laprotanopiaes la carencia de sensibilidad al color rojo, una disfuncin visual relacionada con la percepcin del color. Se denomina tambindicromacia roja.Consiste en la ausencia de actividad funcional de losprotoconos, que son sensibles a la porcin roja del espectro visible. Por tanto, los individuos que sufren protanopia padecen una prdida clara de sensibilidad a la luminosidad del extremo rojo del espectro cromtico.

Ladeuteranopaodeuteranopsiaes una disfuncin visual consistente en alteracin para lapercepcindelcolor.Los conos de la retina responsables de la recepcin de luz con longitud de onda correspondiente al color verde estn ausentes o no son funcionales. Por tanto existe una deficiencia a la hora de discriminar entre verde y rojo.

Latritanomalaes una anomala visual congnita que afecta a la visin de los colores. El individuo que la presenta tiene reducida capacidad para distinguir la diferencia entre algunos tonos deazulyamarillo. Es una variante poco frecuente dediscromatopsiaodaltonismoque presenta el 0.01% de la poblacin.1

Eldaltonismoes un defecto gentico que ocasiona dificultad para distinguir los colores. La palabra daltonismo proviene del fsico y matemticoJohn Daltonque padeca este trastorno.1El grado de afectacin es muy variable y oscila entre la falta de capacidad para discernir cualquier color (acromatopsia) y un ligero grado de dificultad para distinguir algunos matices derojoyverde. A pesar de que la sociedad en general considera que el daltonismo pasa inadvertido en la vida diaria, supone un problema para los afectados en mbitos tan diversos como: valorar el estado de frescura de determinados alimentos, identificar cdigos de colores de planos, elegir determinadas profesiones para las que es preciso superar un reconocimiento mdico que implica identificar correctamente los colores (militar de carrera, piloto, capitn de marina mercante, polica, etc.). Puede detectarse mediante test visuales especficos como lascartas de Ishihara.2El defecto gentico eshereditarioy se transmite generalmente por unalelo recesivoligado alcromosoma X. Si un varn hereda un cromosoma X con esta deficiencia ser daltnico. En cambio en el caso de las mujeres, que poseen dos cromosomas X, slo sern daltnicas si sus dos cromosomas X tienen la deficiencia. Por ello el daltonismo afecta aproximadamente al 1.5% de los hombres y solo al 0,5% de las mujeres.3El trminodiscromatopsiase utiliza en medicina tambin para describir la dificultad en la percepcin de los colores, pero tiene un significado ms general. La discromatopsia puede ser de origen gentico, en cuyo caso se denomina discromatopsia congnita o daltonismo. Tambin pueden producirse discromatopsias que no son de origen gentico y se presentan en algunas enfermedades de laretinao elnervio ptico.45

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El sistema visual. External factors.External factors that influence the abolity to distinguish colors:Variation among color displaysGrayscale displaysDisplay angleAmbient illuminationThese external factors are usually out of the software designers control.BUT designers should keep in mind and follow some recommendations (see next slide).El Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO22 / 110

El sistema visual. Recomendations (guidelines)Distinguish colors by saturation and brightness as well as hue

Use distinctive colors

Avoid color pairs that color-blind people cannot distinguish

Use color redundantly with other cuesColor + a symbol better !!

Separate strong opponent colors

Use light colors for the peripheral information

Pale combinationDark over darkRen over greenYellow over dark-blueWhite over blackBlack over orangeEl Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO23 / 110

El sistema visual. Recomendations (guidelines). Example

NOBad color combination (text against background) worsened by the size of text.SIEl Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO24 / 110

El sistema visual. Recomendations (guidelines). BAD Example

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El sistema visual. Interpretation of coloursWhat colours come to mind when you think of a Success message? doing something wrong?

I actually thought I made an error somehow (without reading the message my bad) then went back and repeated the task before I realized I was being told I had successfully completed the task. In warning red.http://spyrestudios.com/the-user-experience-and-psychology-of-colourEl Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO26 / 110

http://spyrestudios.com/the-user-experience-and-psychology-of-colour

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El sistema visual. Interpretation of colours

Twitter uses a range of colours to communicate different meanings with regards to passwords, starting with a red-ish colour, and progressing to green to show different levels of security for your passwords. Really simple, visual way to communicate their message.El Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO27 / 110

http://spyrestudios.com/the-user-experience-and-psychology-of-colourIPO GEInformtica, curs 2014-155.- El Factor HumToni Granollers.27

http://www.interaction-design.org/members/imagelibrary/zoom.html?g=L21lbWJlcnMvaW1hZ2VsaWJyYXJ5L2ltYWdlcy9jb2xvcmVtb3Rpb25ndWlkZTIuanBnEl Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO28 / 110

El sistema visual. Fovea vs peripheryThe spatial resolution of the human visual field drops greatly from the center to the edges

Special consideration when locating feedback messages in the interfacesEx. Error messages

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The spatial resolution of the human visual field drops greatly from the center to the edges. Each eye has approximately six million retinal cone cells. They are packed much more tightly in the center of our visual fielda small region called the fovea than they are at the edges of the retina (see Fig. 6.1).IPO GEInformtica, curs 2014-155.- El Factor HumToni Granollers.29

El sistema visual. Fovea vs periphery

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El sistema visual. Fovea vs peripheryRecomendations for making message visiblePut it where users are lookingWhen people click a button or link, designers can assume users to be looking directly at it (at least for a few moments afterward). Use this predictability to position error messages near where they expect users to be lookingMark the errorUse an error symbol

Reserve red color for errorsIn our society, red connotes alert, danger, problem, error, ...CARE: Chinese consider red is a auspicious or positive color !!!

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El sistema visual. Fovea vs peripherySTRONGER METHODS for making message visibleUse pop-up message in error dialog boxUse sound When a computer beeps, that tells its user something has happened that requires attentionUse wiggling or flashing messages briefly when they want to ensure that users see them

Use all of these heavy artillery methods sparingly, only for critical messages

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Utilitzeu-amb moderaciIPO GEInformtica, curs 2014-155.- El Factor HumToni Granollers.32

Sistema auditivoLa audicin es crucial para la comunicacin humana

Ncleo de interacciones sociales y transmisin del conocimiento

Existen mens auditivos

IPOEstudiar las interfaces auditivas y las multimodales

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ARA, 23-3-14http://www.ara.cat/premium/suplements/emprenem/Cotxes-internet-matrimoni-dificil_0_1106889316.html

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S.O. SYNC : Microsoft + FordS.O. CarPlay: Apple + VolvoS.O. Android Auto: Google + multimarca

Use voice commands, steering wheel buttons or touch screen.

http://mashable.com/2015/03/20/googles-android-autoEl Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO35 / 110

El tactoPor qu nos hemos de preocupar?Vital en dispositivos TCTILES (cmo los mviles)Es un canal sensitivo importantsimo en el diseo de sistemas de realidad virtualEl usuario explora mundos virtuales con las manosClases de receptoresLa piel es nuestro sistema sensorial ms grandeTermoreceptores: TemperaturaNocireceptores: Estmulos dolorososMecanoreceptores: PresinSentidos que detectan acciones del cuerpoEl Sentido cinescticoProporciona informacin sobre lo que ocurre en la superficie y el interior del cuerpo; Incluye sensaciones que provienen de la posicin y el movimiento de las partes corporalesEs un sentido somtico (articulaciones y huesos)El sentido vestibularProporciona informacin acerca de la orientacin, el movimiento, la aceleracinFuncionesEquilibrioMantenimiento de la cabeza en posicin erguidaAjuste de los movimientos de los ojos para compensar los movimientos de la cabeza

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DolorDos componentes importantesComponente sensorialComponente emocional

Umbral del dolorLa menor intensidad de estimulacin a la cual percibimos dolor

Tiene un papel constructivo

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TemperaturaEs posible identificar puntos separados para el fro y el calor en nuestra piel

Los umbrales de temperatura estn influidos por factores como la parte del cuerpo, la cantidad de piel expuesta y la velocidad de cambio de la temperatura

Con la exposicin repetida se produce una adaptacin trmica en la que disminuye la intensidad percibida

Las personas no localizan bien la temperatura ni la miden con precisin

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El OlfatoRealidad virtualPosibilidad que ofrecen los olores para crear mundos virtuales parecidos a los realesInterfaces emocionalesTiene conexiones nerviosas directas con el sistema lmbico, el encargado de procesar las emocionesAdaptacinSi los receptores son expuestos durante mucho tiempo a un mismo olor pierden selectivamente la sensibilidad a ese olorGran variacin individualEn la sensibilidad al olor, lo que hace que sea difcil disear interfaces olfativas para que sean usadas universalmente

http://www.google.com/noseIrreal ahora, pero futurible

http://www.micro-scent.net/index.htmlOlfactory Interfaceshttps://augmentedbody.wordpress.com/2010/11/05/olfactory-interfaces

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http://sensoree.com/smell-interfacesHuman Olfactory Displays and Interfaces: Odor Sensing and PresentationTakamichi NakamotoTokyo Institute of Technology (Japan)

https://gigaom.com/2013/04/13/how-technology-is-slowly-developing-its-sense-of-smellEl Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO40 / 110

PerceptionOur perception of the world around us is not a true depiction of what is actually there. We perceive, to a large extent, what we expect to perceive.

Our expectations and therefore our perceptions are biased by three factors:the past: our experiencethe present: the current contextthe future: our goalsEl Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO41 / 110

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Perception(from previous examples) When your perceptual system has been primed to see building shapes, you see building shapes, and the white areas between the buildings barely register in your perception. When your perceptual system has been primed to see text, you see text, and the black areas between the letters barely register.

BUT, experience can also bias other types of perception, such as sentence comprehension

Multipage dialog boxThe Next button is perceived to be in a consistent location, even when it isntBiased by the pastour experienceEl Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO42 / 110

PerceptionUsers of computer software and Web sites often click buttons or links without looking carefully at them.

Their perception of the display is based more on what their past experience leads them to expect than on what is actually on the screen.

This sometimes confounds software designers, who expect users to see what is on the screen. But that isnt how perception worksEx: previous Next & Back buttons many people would not immediately notice the switch on the last page.Even after unintentionally going backward a few times, they might continue to perceive the buttons in their standard locations.

This is why place controls consistently is a common user interface design guideline.

Experience tunes us to look for expected features in expected locations

Biased by the past: our experienceEl Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO43 / 110

PerceptionText LinksWhile blue is still the safest link color, other colors work just as well as long as the links stand out clearly from the body text. If you dont have a particular reason to prefer another color, we still recommend blue as the safest choice...The position of links can help you determine whether or not underlining is necessary. Static items should not have the same color as hyperlinks.Dont use blue text (or underline text) for nonclickable items.Apply the same treatment consistently throughout your site.

Biased by the past: our experience

The miscues on this page create confusion. The blue headings are not clickable. The images are clickable, but they look like static images. The instructions at the top of the page tell you what to click on a sure sign of design fail.Beyond Blue Links: Making Clickable Elements Recognizable, by Hoa Loranger on March 8, 2015 http://goo.gl/79Y4E0El Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO44 / 110

PerceptionPERCEPTION BIASED BY EXPERIENCEImagine that you own a large insurance company. You are meeting with a real estate manager, discussing plans for a new campus of company buildings. The campus consists of a row of five buildings, the last two with T-shaped courtyards providing light for the cafeteria and fitness center. If the real estate manager showed you the map shown next figure, you would see five black shapes representing the buildings

Biased by the present: the current contextEl Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO45 / 110

PerceptionPERCEPTION BIASED BY EXPERIENCENow imagine that you are meeting with an advertising manager. You are discussing a new billboard ad to be placed in certain markets around the country. The advertising manager shows you the same image, but in this scenario the image is a sketch of the ad, consisting of a single word. In this scenario, you see a word, clearly and unambiguously

Biased by the present: the current contextEl Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO46 / 110

Visual PerceptionVisual perception reading in particular is not strictly a bottom-up process. It includes top-down influences toobottom-up process: combining basic features such as edges, lines, angles, curves, and patterns into figures and ultimately into meaningful objects

Example: the word in which a character appears may affect how we identify the character

Biased by the past: our experienceEl Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO47 / 110

Visual PerceptionOur overall comprehension of a sentence or of a paragraph can even influence what words we see in it

Example: the same letter sequence can be read as different words depending on the meaning of the surrounding paragraph

Fold napkins. Polish silverware. Wash dishes.French napkins. Polish silverware. German dishes.Biased by the present: the current contextEl Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO48 / 110

Visual Perception

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PerceptionThe biasing of perception by the surrounding context works between different senses too.

Perceptions in any of our five senses may affect simultaneous perceptions in any of our other senses.

For example:What we see can be biased by what we are hearing, and vice versaWhat we feel with our tactile sense can be biased by what we are hearing, seeing, or smellingEl Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO50 / 110

PerceptionPERCEPTION BIASED BY GOALSIn addition to being biased by our past experience and the present context, our perception is influenced by our goals and plans for the futureour goals filter our perceptionsFor example, when navigating through software or a Web site, seeking information or a specific function, people dont read carefully. They scan screens quickly and superficially for items that seem related to their goal. They dont simply ignore items unrelated to their goals; they often dont even notice themBiased by the future: our goalsEl Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO51 / 110

PERCEPTION BIASED BY GOALSIn addition to being biased by our past experience and the present context, ourperception is influenced by our goals and plans for the future. Specifically, our goalsfilter our perceptions: things unrelated to our goals tend to be filtered out preconsciously,never registering in our conscious minds.For example, when people navigate through software or a Web site, seeking informationor a specific function, they dont read carefully. They scan screens quickly and superficially for items that seem related to their goal. They dont simply ignoreitems unrelated to their goals; they often dont even notice them.To see this, flip briefly to the next page and look in the toolbox (Fig. 1.6) for scissors,and then immediately flip back to this page. Try it now.Did you spot the scissors? Now, without looking back at the toolbox, can yousay whether there is a screwdriver in the toolbox too?Our goals filter our perceptions in other perceptual senses as well as in vision.A familiar example is the cocktail party effect. If you are conversing with someoneat a crowded party, you can focus your attention to hear mainly what he or she issaying even though many other people are talking near you. The more interested youare in the conversation, the more strongly your brain filters out surrounding chatter.If you are bored by what your conversational partner is saying, you will probablyhear much more of the conversations around you.The effect was first documented in studies of air-traffic controllers, who wereable to carry on a conversation with the pilots of their assigned aircraft even thoughmany different conversations were occurring simultaneously on the same radiofrequency, coming out of the same speaker in the control room (Arons, 1992).Research suggests that our ability to focus on one conversation among several simultaneousones depends not only on our interest level in the conversation but also onobjective factors such as the similarity of voices in the cacophony, the amount ofgeneral noise (e.g., clattering dishes or loud music), and the predictability of whatyour conversational partner is saying (Arons, 1992).This filtering of perception by our goals is particularly true for adults, who tendto be more focused on goals than children are. Children are more stimulus driven:their perception is less filtered by their goals. This characterisitic makes them moredistractible than adults, but it also makes them less biased as observers.A parlor game demonstrates this age difference in perceptual filtering. It is similarto the look in the toolbox exercise. Most households have a catch-all drawerfor kitchen implements or tools. From your living room, send a visitor to the roomwhere the catch-all drawer is, with instructions to fetch you a specific tool, such asmeasuring spoons or a pipe wrench. When the person returns with the tool, askwhether another specific tool was in the drawer. Most adults will not know whatelse was in the drawer. Childrenif they can complete the task without being distractedby all the cool stuff in the drawerwill often be able to tell you more aboutwhat else was there.Perceptual filtering can also be seen in how people navigate Web sites. SupposeI put you on the home page of New Zealands University of Canterbury (see Fig. 1.7)and asked you to print out a map of the campus showing the computer sciencedepartment. You would scan the page and probably quickly click one of the linksthat share words with the goal that I gave you: Departments (top left), Departmentsand Colleges (middle left), or Campus Maps (bottom right). If youre a searchperson,you might instead go right to the Search box (middle right), type wordsrelated to the goal, and click Go.

Whether you browse or search, it is likely that you would leave the home pagewithout noticing that you were randomly chosen to win $100 (bottom left). Why?Because that was not related to your goal.What is the mechanism by which our current goals bias our perception? Thereare two:l Influencing where we look. Perception is active, not passive. We constantlymove our eyes, ears, hands, and so on, so as to sample exactly the things in ourenvironment that are most relevant to what we are doing or about to do (Ware,2008). If we are looking on a Web site for a campus map, our eyes and pointercontrollinghand are attracted to anything that might lead us to that goal. Wemore or less ignore anything unrelated to our goal.l Sensitizing our perceptual system to certain features. When we are lookingfor something, our brain can prime our perception to be especially sensitive to featuresof what we are looking for (Ware, 2008). For example, when we are lookingfor a red car in a large parking lot, red cars will seem to pop out as we scan the lot,and cars of other colors will barely register in our consciousness, even though wedo in some sense see them. Similarly, when we are trying to find our spouse ina dark, crowded room, our brain programs our auditory system to be especiallysensitive to the combination of frequencies that make up his or her voice.IPO GEInformtica, curs 2014-155.- El Factor HumToni Granollers.51

PerceptionPERCEPTION BIASED BY GOALS

Excercise: look in next image for a scisors

Now, did you spot the scissors?And, can you say whether there is a screwdriver in the toolbox too?

Biased by the future: our goalsEl Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO52 / 110

To see this, flip briefly to the next page and look in the toolbox (Fig. 1.6) for scissors, and then immediately flip back to this page. Try it now. Did you spot the scissors? Now, without looking back at the toolbox, can you say whether there is a screwdriver in the toolbox too?Our goals filter our perceptions in other perceptual senses as well as in vision.

A familiar example is the cocktail party effect. If you are conversing with someone at a crowded party, you can focus your attention to hear mainly what he or she is saying even though many other people are talking near you. The more interested you are in the conversation, the more strongly your brain filters out surrounding chatter. If you are bored by what your conversational partner is saying, you will probably hear much more of the conversations around you.IPO GEInformtica, curs 2014-155.- El Factor HumToni Granollers.52

PerceptionPERCEPTION BIASED BY GOALSThis filtering of perception by our goals is particularly true for adults, who tend to be more focused on goals than children are.

Children are more stimulus driven: their perception is less filtered by their goals, then:Children are more distractible than adults, but it also makes them less biased as observers

Biased by the future: our goalsEl Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO53 / 110

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PerceptionPerceptual filtering can also be seen in how people navigate Web sites

Enhorabona!! La teva entrada a la web ser recompensada amb un premi de 100.Passa per secretaria de direcci per recollir-lo.Look for the departments structure of EPSHave you seen that you won 100 ??NO?Because it was not related to your goal !!Biased by the future: our goalsEl Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO54 / 110

Perceptual filtering can also be seen in how people navigate Web sites. SupposeI put you on the home page of New Zealands University of Canterbury (see Fig. 1.7)and asked you to print out a map of the campus showing the computer sciencedepartment. You would scan the page and probably quickly click one of the linksthat share words with the goal that I gave you: Departments (top left), Departmentsand Colleges (middle left), or Campus Maps (bottom right). If youre a searchperson,you might instead go right to the Search box (middle right), type wordsrelated to the goal, and click Go.Whether you browse or search, it is likely that you would leave the home pagewithout noticing that you were randomly chosen to win $100 (bottom left). Why?Because that was not related to your goal.IPO GEInformtica, curs 2014-155.- El Factor HumToni Granollers.54

PerceptionWhat is the mechanism by which our current goals bias our perception? There are two:

Influencing where we look. Perception is active, not passive. We constantly move our eyes, ears, hands, and so on.We more or less ignore anything unrelated to our goal.

Sensitizing our perceptual system to certain features. When we are looking for something, our brain can prime our perception to be especially sensitive to features of what we are looking for.El Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO55 / 110

What is the mechanism by which our current goals bias our perception? Thereare two:l Influencing where we look. Perception is active, not passive. We constantlymove our eyes, ears, hands, and so on, so as to sample exactly the things in ourenvironment that are most relevant to what we are doing or about to do (Ware,2008). If we are looking on a Web site for a campus map, our eyes and pointercontrollinghand are attracted to anything that might lead us to that goal. Wemore or less ignore anything unrelated to our goal.l Sensitizing our perceptual system to certain features. When we are lookingfor something, our brain can prime our perception to be especially sensitive to featuresof what we are looking for (Ware, 2008). For example, when we are lookingfor a red car in a large parking lot, red cars will seem to pop out as we scan the lot,and cars of other colors will barely register in our consciousness, even though wedo in some sense see them. Similarly, when we are trying to find our spouse ina dark, crowded room, our brain programs our auditory system to be especiallysensitive to the combination of frequencies that make up his or her voice.IPO GEInformtica, curs 2014-155.- El Factor HumToni Granollers.55

Perception. DESIGN IMPLICATIONSAvoid ambiguityAvoid ambiguous information displaysTest your design to verify that all users interpret the display in the same wayWhere ambiguity is unavoidablerely on standards or conventions to resolve it, or prime users to resolve the ambiguity in the intended way

Be consistentPlace information and controls in consistent locations. Controls and data displays that serve the same function on different pages should be placed in the same position on each page on which they appear. They should also have the same color, text fonts, shading, and so on.

Understand the goalsUsers come to a system with goals they want to achieve. Designers should understand those goals.

UserCentredDesignEl Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO56 / 110

Gestalt Principles. Human Vision is OPTIMIZED to See StructureHuman vision is holistic: The visual system automatically imposes structure on visual input and is wired to perceive whole shapes, figures, and objects rather than disconnected edges, lines and areas.Gestalt principles of visual perceptionhttp://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Gestalt_principleshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gestalt_psychologyhttp://www.slideshare.net/chelsc/gestalt-laws-and-design-presentation

Todays theories of visual perception tend to be based heavily on the neurophysiology of the eyes, optic nerve, and brainBUT, Gestalt principles are still validat least as a framework for describing visual perception explanationsAlso provides useful basis for guidelines for graphic and UI designEl Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO57 / 110

Similarity Similar objects are often perceived as a group.Continuation Continuation occurs when the human eyes follow the direction from one object to another, perceiving separate objects as one.Closure When gaps appear between shapes, people tend to mentally close those gaps and form a perception of a whole object.Proximity Objects placed close together are often perceived as a group.Figure and Ground Different shapes that are formed by the foreground (figure) and background (ground).

http://yusylvia.wordpress.com/tag/gestaltEl Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO58 / 110

Gestalt Principles. Human Vision is OPTIMIZED to See StructureProximity

Items that are closer appear grouped. Left: rows, Right: columnsDistribution List Membership dialog box, list buttons are in a group box, separatefrom the window-control buttons

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Gestalt Principles. Human Vision is OPTIMIZED to See StructureProximity

poorly spaced radiobuttons look grouped in vertical columns

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Gestalt Principles. Human Vision is OPTIMIZED to See StructureSimilarity

Items appear grouped if they look more similar to each other than to other objectsMac OS Page Setup dialog box: The Similarity and Proximity principles are used to group theOrientation settings.El Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO61 / 110

Gestalt Principles. Human Vision is OPTIMIZED to See StructureSimilarity

Online form at Elsevier.com:

- Similarity makes the text fields appear grouped

- The four menus, in addition to being data fields, help separate the text field groups.

- By contrast, the labels are too far from their fields to seem connected to them.

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Gestalt Principles. Human Vision is OPTIMIZED to See StructureContinuityvisual perception is biased to perceive continuous forms rather than disconnected segments

We see a slider as a single slot with a handle somewhere on it, not as two slots separated by a handle. (A) Mac OS, (B) ComponentOneEl Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO63 / 110

For example, on the left side of Figure 2.8, we automatically see two crossinglinesone blue and one orange. We dont see two separate orange segments andtwo separate blue ones, and we dont see a blue-and-orange V on top of an upsidedownorange-and-blue V. On the right side of Figure 2.8, we see a sea monster inwater, not three pieces of one.A well-known example of the use of the Continuity principle in graphic designis the IBM logo. It consists of disconnected blue patches, and yet it is not at allambiguous; it is easily seen as three bold letters, perhaps viewed through somethinglike venetian blinds (see Fig. 2.9).Slider controls are a user-interface example of the Continuity principle. Wesee a slider as depicting a single range controlled by a handle that appears somewhereon the slider, not as two separate ranges separated by the handle (seeFig. 2.10A). Even displaying different colors on each side of a sliders handle doesntcompletely break our perception of a slider as one continuous object, althoughComponentOnes choice of strongly contrasting colors (gray vs. red) certainly strainsthat perception a bit (see Fig. 2.10B).IPO GEInformtica, curs 2014-155.- El Factor HumToni Granollers.63

Gestalt Principles. Human Vision is OPTIMIZED to See StructureClousurerelated to Continuityour visual system automatically tries to close open figures so that they are perceived as whole objects rather than separate pieces

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Gestalt Principles. Human Vision is OPTIMIZED to See StructureFigure/Groundhuman mind separates the visual field into the figure (the foreground) and ground (the background) and it is influenced by characteristics of the scene

In UI design, this principle is often used to place an impression-inducing background behind the primary displayed contentIt is also often used to pop up information over other content. Content that was formerly the figure the focus of the users attention temporarily becomes the background for new information, which appears briefly as the new.

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Gestalt Principles. Human Vision is OPTIMIZED to See Structure. Figure/Ground

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More Gestalt PrinciplesHuman Vision is OPTIMIZED to See StructureSimetry and orderSymmetry gives us a feeling of solidity and order, which we tend to seek. Its our nature to impose order on chaos.

The human visual system tries to resolve complex scenes into combinations of simple, symmetrical shapesEl Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO67 / 110

More Gestalt PrinciplesHuman Vision is OPTIMIZED to See Structureprevious Gestalt principles concerned perception of static (un-moving) figures and objects. Common Fate concerns moving objects.It is related to the Proximity and Similarity principles: Like them it affects whether we perceive objects as grouped.

Objects that move together are perceived as grouped or related.

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Fate = destinaciIPO GEInformtica, curs 2014-155.- El Factor HumToni Granollers.68

Gestalt Principles. Human Vision is OPTIMIZED to See StructureOf course, in real-world visual scenes, the Gestalt principles work in concert, not in isolation

Recommendation:after designing a UI, try to view it with each of the Gestalt principles in mind to see if the design suggests any relationships between elements that you do not intendEl Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO69 / 110

Perceiving StructurePerceiving structure in our environment helps us make sense of objects and events quickly

This website buries the important information in repetitive prose.New version, page with repetition eliminated and better visual structureStructured presentation of airline reservation information is easier to scan and understand

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Perceiving StructureStructure also enhances peoples ability to scan long numbersSegmenting data fields can provide useful visual structure even when the data to be entered is not, strictly speaking, a number

Easy: (415) 123-4567Hard: 4151234567

Easy: 1234 5678 9012 3456Hard: 1234567890123456

Segmented data fields provide useful structureEl Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO71 / 110

Perceiving StructureVisual hierarchy lets people focus on the relevant information

Visual hierarchy is equally important in interactive control panels and forms -perhaps even more so.El Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO72 / 110

Find the advice about prominence in each of these displays. Prose text format (left) makes people read everything. Visual hierarchy (right) lets people ignore information irrelevant to their goalsIPO GEInformtica, curs 2014-155.- El Factor HumToni Granollers.72

Perception. READINGSpeaking and undestanding spoken language is a NATURAL human ability, Reading IS NOTLearning to read involves training our brain (& our visual system) to recognize patternsReading involves recognizing features and patterns

Feature-driven (bottom-up or context-free) readingThe brains ability to recognize basic features (lines, edges, angles, etc.) is built in and therefore automatic from birth. Recognition of morphemes, words, and phrases has to be learned.Context-driven (top-down) reading The visual system starts by recognizing high-level patterns (words, phrases, and sentences) or by knowing the texts meaning in advance. It then uses that knowledge to figure out (or guess) what the components of the high-level pattern must be.

Context [is] important, but its a more important aid for the poorer reader who doesnt have automatic context-free recognition instantiatedEl Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO73 / 110

Context-driven reading is less likelyto become fully automatic because most phrase-level and sentence-level patterns andcontexts dont occur frequently enough to allow their recognition to become burnedinto neural firing patterns. But there are exceptions, such as idiomaticexpressionsIPO GEInformtica, curs 2014-155.- El Factor HumToni Granollers.73

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3NG4NX4-H0 4L 73U MUR S1 H0 P075 LL3G1RPerception: READING: pattern recognition (top-down processing)Can you read this text?? (in catalan)

Or these?THE WORK MUST GET DONE. WORK

THE WORK MUST GET DONE. WORK

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Perception: READINGCareful with geek terminology (especially in system or error messages)

with difficult scripts & typefaces

with tiny fontsYour session has expired. Please reauthenticate.login again.

ALL CAPS hard to read (letters look more similar to each other)Outline typefaces complicate feature recognitionHumancomputer Interaction (HCI) is the study, planning, and design of the interaction between people (users) and computers. It is often regarded as the intersection of computer science, behavioral sciences, design and several other fields of study. Interaction between users and computers occurs at the user interface (or simply interface), which includes both sw and hw.Humancomputer Interaction (HCI) is the study, planning, and design of the interaction between people (users) and computers. It is often regarded as the intersection of computer science, behavioral sciences, design and several other fields of study. Interaction between users and computers occurs at the user interface (or simply interface), which includes both sw and hw.

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Modelo procesamiento humano

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Memoria sensorialLa informacin llega a nuestros sentidos de una forma continua y muy rpida

Los procesos encargados de analizarla en la memoria de trabajo necesitan tiempo para realizar su funcin y puede ocurrir que la pierdan antes de almacenarla

Por esta razn, los canales sensoriales tienen asociados memorias donde la informacin se almacena por cortos perodos de tiempo (milsimas de segundo)

La funcin de estas memorias es retener la informacin para que pueda ser transferida a la Memoria de Trabajo antes de que desaparezca

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Memoria sensorialActa como buffer de los estmulos recibidos a travs de los sentidos

Existe una memoria para cada canal, y se actualizan constantemente

La informacin se almacena durante periodos muy cortosEste almacenamiento nos permite predecir la procedencia del sonido (se percibe por cada odo con un cierto desfase), o un fogonazo en la oscuridad (persistencia de la imagen tras haber cesado el estmulo).

Existen tantas Memorias sensoriales como sentidos tenemos.

Sin embargo, las que mejor conocemos actualmente son:Memoria Icnica, ligada al canal visualMemoria Ecoica, ligada al canal auditivo

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Memoria sensorial. AlmacenesIcnico:Recibe la informacin visualLa informacin que se recibe es de carcter perceptual y no categorialPermite mantener 9 elementos durante aprox. 250 msegSe transfieren los elementos a los que el usuario preste atencin

Ecoico:Almacena los estmulos auditivosAlmacenamiento deSonidos individuales durante 250 msegPalabras con significado durante 2 o ms segundos

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Modelo procesamiento humano

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Memoria de Trabajo (MT) (Memoria Operativa). Short-Term Memory (STM)Short-term memory is not a store it is not a place where memories and perceptions go to be worked on. It is not a temporary repository for information just brought in from the sensory system or retrieved from long-term memory.Instead, short-term memory is a combination of phenomena arising from perception and attention.

Each of our perceptual senses has its own very brief short-term memory that is the result of residual neural activity after a perceptual stimulusEl Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO81 / 110

Memoria de Trabajo (MT) (Memoria Operativa). Short-Term Memory (STM)STM is equal to the focus of our attention. Whatever is in that focus is what we are conscious of at any moment.Right now you are conscious of the last few words and ideas youve read, but probably not the color of the wall in front of you. But now that Ive shifted your attention, you are conscious of the walls color, and may have forgotten some of the ideas you read on the previous page

The primary characteristics of STM are its low capacity and its volatility

Realizar el STM TestEl Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO82 / 110

Memoria de Trabajo (MT) (Memoria Operativa). Short-Term Memory (STM)Designing a men (web, phone, ...):How many options should have?A few? ... But, how many options is few ??

The magical number 72, MillerTiempo de acceso: 70 msegTiempo en la memoria: 20 seg

BUT: People can only remember about 3-4 items at a time.The "7 plus or minus 2" rule isan urban legend. Research shows the real number is 3-4.from http://uxmag.com/articles/the-psychologists-view-of-ux-design?goback=%2Egde_72842_member_213335291

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Memoria de Trabajo (MT) (Memoria Operativa). Short-Term Memory (STM)La carga de informacin en STM y la probabilidad de un fallo en la recuperacin de informacin almacenada en ella dependen de las demandas de almacenamiento y del procesamiento de las tareas.

Los mens profundos y estrechos demandan ms capacidad de procesamiento.En ellos, una opcin en el nivel superior de la estructura de mens est poco relacionada con la descripcin de la tarea, generando mayor demanda de procesamiento.El usuario necesita recorrer un mayor camino para encontrar la opcin que necesita.

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Memoria de Trabajo (MT) (Memoria Operativa). Short-Term Memory (STM)En trminos de almacenamiento y procesamiento, en la interaccin con los mens telefnicos se generan grandes demandas de STM por tres razones:E

El ritmo de presentacin de las opciones es marcado por la interfaz y no por l. Este ritmo genera una presin temporal que incrementa las demandas de procesamiento en MT. No existen ayudas externas como ocurre en los mens visuales.

El usuario debe monitorizar el estado de un ambiente estimular en constante cambio (la presentacin de las opciones de cada men). El usuario debe notar los cambios en ese ambiente porque eso le permite la evaluacin de las alternativas para la eleccin de las siguientes opciones y porque esos cambios le dan un feedback sobre la eficacia de las opciones ya elegidas.El Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO85 / 110

Memoria de Trabajo (MT) (Memoria Operativa). Short-Term Memory (STM)UI DESIGN implicationsThe capacity and volatility of short-term memory have many implications for the design of interactive computer systems. UI should help people remember essential information from one moment to the next.Dont require people to remember system status or what they have done, because their attention is focused on their primary goal and progress toward it.Ejercicio: buscar ejemplos de diseo que favorezcan o dificulten la STMThere are two things that every designed screen must do well: describe the current step and describe the next step. Its as simpleand hardas that.http://bokardo.com/archives/designing-for-the-next-step

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Ejemplos en el libro: pags. 86-89, corregir lexercici fitxat-se en aquellsIPO GEInformtica, curs 2014-155.- El Factor HumToni Granollers.86

POBLACI 2

POBLACI 1

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UI DESIGN implicationsRegular dropdown menus in large, multi-level sites typically hide some or many of the options from the user.

This requires them to scroll, search or remember where particular options are within the user interface, more interactively demanding (i.e. more clicking is required)more cognitively demanding (i.e. recall from short-term memory is required)Mega Dropdown menu (Fat menu)http://www.nngroup.com/articles/mega-menus-work-wellEl Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO88 / 110

As this ribbon-gallery example shows, mega drop-downs offer yet another benefit over regular drop-downs: they let you display tooltips when the user hovers over choices. Simple navigation menus, typically use link titles instead of true tooltips

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Modelo procesamiento humano

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Memoria de Largo Plazo (MLP). Long-Term Memory (LTM)It actually is a MEMORY STOREthe capacity of human long-term memory seems almost unlimitedweaknesses: error-prone, impressionist (weighted by emotions), free-associative,idiosyncratic (muy personal), retroactively alterable,easily biased by a variety of factors at the time of recording or of retrieval.Testing is easier:What was your previous phone number (or car identification)?What was your first grade teachers name? Second grade? Third grade? What Web site was presented earlier that show ?An exam,..El Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO91 / 110

Idiosyncratic molt personalidiosincrasiaf. Rasgos y carcter propios y distintivos de un individuo o de una colectividad:el respeto a la naturaleza forma parte de la idiosincrasia de los pueblos indgenas.

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Memoria de Largo Plazo (MLP). Long-Term Memory (LTM)The main thing that the characteristics of long-term memory imply is that people need tools to augment it.Humankind has a need for technologies that augment memorysoftware designers should try to provide software that fulfills that need. designers should avoid developing systems that burden longterm memoryFamiliar paths (patterns): well-learned routes can be done fairly automatically and does not consume attention and short-term memory.They are stored in LTMEl Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO92 / 110

Since prehistoric times, people have invented technologies to help them remember things over long periods: notched sticks, knotted ropes, mnemonics, verbal stories and histories retold around campfires, writing, scrolls, books, number systems, shopping lists, checklists, phone directories, datebooks, accounting ledgers, oven timers, computers, portable digital assistants (PDAs), online shared calendars, etc.

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Memoria de Largo Plazo (MLP). Long-Term Memory (LTM)

This kind of registration burdens long-term memory: users may have no unique, memorable answer for any of the questionsEjercicio: buscar ejemplos de diseo que favorezcan o dificulten la LTMEl Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO93 / 110

Since prehistoric times, people have invented technologies to help them remember things over long periods: notched sticks, knotted ropes, mnemonics, verbal stories and histories retold around campfires, writing, scrolls, books, number systems, shopping lists, checklists, phone directories, datebooks, accounting ledgers, oven timers, computers, portable digital assistants (PDAs), online shared calendars, etc.

IPO GEInformtica, curs 2014-155.- El Factor HumToni Granollers.93

Memoria de Largo Plazo (MLP). Long-Term Memory (LTM)UI DESIGN implicationsRecognition is easy; Recall is hardRecognition is essentially perception + LTM working in concert.If a perception comes in that is similar to an earlier one and the context is close enough, it easily stimulates a similar pattern of neural activity, resulting in a sense of recognition. Recall is LTM reactivating (old) neural patterns without immediate similar perceptual input. Much harder than reactivating a neural pattern with the same or similar perceptions.Our brain did not evolve to recall facts humans develop methods and technologies to help them remember facts and proceduresEx.: a sheet of paper or a power point presentation usually is a recall resourceThe relative ease with which we can recognize things rather than recall them is the basis of the GUI [Johnson et al., 1989, The xerox star: A retrospective. IEEE Computer]

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Memoria de Largo Plazo (MLP). Long-Term Memory (LTM)UI DESIGN implicationsRecognition vs Recall, golden rules:See and choose is easier than recall and type

Recognition rather than recall one of Nielsen & Molichs widely used heuristics for evaluating UI

See & chooseRemember & typeC> copy doc1 doc2C> remove fileASee & chooseEl Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO95 / 110

Memoria de Largo Plazo (MLP). Long-Term Memory (LTM)UI DESIGN implicationsRecognition vs Recall, golden rules:Use pictures where possible to convey function

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Memoria de Largo Plazo (MLP). Long-Term Memory (LTM)La memoria de largo plazo almacena todo nuestro conocimiento

Las principales caractersticas son: Gran capacidad (casi ilimitada) Acceso ms lento (1/10 s) Las prdidas ocurren ms lentamente

Tipos:ProcedimentalDeclarativa

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Memoria de Largo Plazo (MLP). Long-Term Memory (LTM)Why most smart phones make a shutter sound when you close a camera to take a picture? when you read a book on a tablet seems that "turning the pages"?link to the past

However, increasingly, some of the objects that serve as reference are disappearing from memory of users. The younger generation of iPad users, will there ever be operated analog clocks, calendars, notebooks paper or yellow pages? In the near future, how many of them have passed the pages of a real book?

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https://dribbble.com/shots/840686-THE-NEW-SAVE-ICON-PROCESS-INCLUDED?list=usersIPO GEInformtica, curs 2014-155.- El Factor HumToni Granollers.98

And be aware aboutOur STM decreases with age. However, we can draw on much more background knowledge in our LTM.

Model Human ProcessorEl Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO99 / 110

podem aprofitar molt ms el coneixement de fons en la nostra LTMIPO GEInformtica, curs 2014-155.- El Factor HumToni Granollers.99

Affordance (captacin intuitiva)Las affordances son las funciones de un objeto que el observador percibe directamente a partir de su imagen.

Una buena affordance atrae al usuario, lo invita a interactuar con el sistema sin necesidad de consultar la ayuda

http://www.grihotools.udl.cat/mpiua/affordanceshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Affordance

Everyday designs intuitivos: manecilla para abrir la puerta del cocheEl Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO100 / 110

Affordance (captacin intuitiva)Requisitos para maximizar la efectividad de las affordances

Forma funcional un usuario al percibir un botn, la primera impresin que tiene es la de estar ante un objeto para ser presionado

Visibilidad al usuario Elementos como los links emergentes que tan solo aparecen cuando el usuario sita encima de los mismos el puntero del ratn, no son aconsejables en la medida en que no hacen visible su funcin a primera vista

Accin coherenteUn botn para acceder a un men oculto que se identifique con una flecha sealando abajo, deber presentar el men desde ese punto y hacia abajo

Relatividad del observador: un problema de las affordances es que no suscitan la misma funcin a todo tipo de poblacin un banco en un parque puede presentar el affordance sentarse en l para un anciano, y escalarlo para un nio pequeo El Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO101 / 110

Affordance. The Principle of 'Visibility'VISIBILITY is an important designprincipleif a user cannot see the means of achieving their goals, they will either waste time searching for them, or simply seek alternative websites, devices or designs that do not impede their productivity in such a way

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Affordance (captacin intuitiva)un usuario al percibir un botn, la primera impresin que tiene es la de estar ante un objeto para ser presionado

El crculo tambin da una rea de acierto, pero es menor y el usuario se suele apoyar en los contornosInstall Now

El cuadrado proporciona un rea mayor de acierto para el usuariobuscarSi no pintamos el rea de acierto, el usaurio tiene que apuntar muy bien para acertar el botnInstall Now

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http://inspiringux.com/2012/10/10/confusing-affordanceIPO GEInformtica, curs 2014-155.- El Factor HumToni Granollers.103

Confusing AffordanceWhich one can or should be pressed? All three look like a button, which means we can press on it.

The fact is, only the middle one is a buttonEl Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO104 / 110

Affordance & graphic methafors (icons)In the battle of clarity between icons and labels, labels always win.

http://bokardo.com/archives/labels-always-winProgressive Reduction:http://layervault.tumblr.com/post/42361566927/progressive-reduction

familiarityEl Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO105 / 110

Affordance & graphic methafors (icons)Cuando enviamos un video por Whatsapp, se muestra un cuadro del video con un widget en el centro que indica el progreso en el envo. El widget se compone de:un crculo que se muestra con un fondo negro transparente y una circunferencia en blanco que va completndose conforme progresa el envo, adems de un cuadrado plano que funciona como smbolo de stop. Cuando el video ha sido descargado, el crculo cambia a un blanco transparente con un tringulo que funciona como smbolo de play. Muy interesante la doble funcin comunicativa conseguida en este diseo a pesar de su simplezapor un lado, comunica el progreso en el envo, por el otro, refleja su affordance como botn.

Adems, un usuario de Whatsapp sabr que algo sali mal en la descargadel vdeo si la circunferencia nunca se completaEl Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO106 / 110

Exemple de http://foroalfa.org/articulos/el-circulo-rey-del-diseno-planoIPO GEInformtica, curs 2014-155.- El Factor HumToni Granollers.106

Non affordance: Lack of Hover State on Touch DevicesOn touch devices users lack the subtle but crucial mouse hover states which provide instant indication if something is clickable or not

Touch devices do not have the affordance for instant indication if something is clickable or not

This proved a major problem during user testing of the mobile sites; especially on complex, navigation heavy sites such as mobile commerce sites

http://baymard.com/blog/mobile-product-list-hit-areasEl Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO107 / 110

ConclusionesLa persona percibe informacin a travs de los sentidosVista, odo, tacto, ...Guarda, manipula y utiliza informacinReacciona a la informacin recibida

Una comprensin de les capacidades y limitaciones de las personas nos ayudar en el diseo de las interfaces de los sistemas interactivos

10 things every designer should know about peoplehttp://www.uxforthemasses.com/10-things-every-designer-should-know-about-peopleLectura recomendadaEl Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO108 / 110

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BibliografaNorman, D. A. (2002). The Design of Everyday Things. Basic Books. Anderson, J.R. (1995). Cognitive Psychology and its implications. NY.Card, S.K., Moran, T.P. y Newell, A. (1983). The Psychology of Human-Computer Interaction. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Caas, J.J. (2004). Personas y Mquinas. El diseo de su interaccin desde la ergonoma cognitiva.Miller, G.A. (1956). The magical number seven plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review, 63, 81-97.Designing with the Mind in Mind: Simple Guide to Understanding User Interface Design Rules

Jeff JohnsonMorgan Kaufmann (2010)El Factor Humano - GEInformtica, IPO109 / 110

100 Things Every Designer Needs to Know About People

Susan WeinschenkNew Riders (2011)

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El Curso de Interaccin Persona-Ordenador ha sido realizado por Toni Granollers bajo la licencia Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial 4.0 Internacional License.

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